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Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
oai:digital.csic.es:10261/281275
Dataset. 2018

DATA FROM: TRACKING DATA AND RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSES OF DIET REVEAL THE CONSEQUENCES OF LOSS OF MARINE SUBSIDIES FOR AN OBLIGATE SCAVENGER, THE ANDEAN CONDOR

  • Lambertucci, Sergio A.
  • Navarro, Joan
  • Sánchez-Zapata, José A.
  • Hobson, Keith A.
  • Alarcón, Pablo A. E.
  • Wiemeyer, Guillermo
  • Blanco, Guillermo
  • Hiraldo, F.
  • Donázar, José A.
File_SIA_Condor Isotopic values of historical and modern Andean condors and their main trophic resources collected in the Patagonian area, Over the last century, marine mammals have been dramatically reduced in the world’s oceans. We examined evidence that this change caused dietary and foraging pattern shifts of the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) in Patagonia. We hypothesized that, after the decrease in marine mammals and the increase in human use of coastlines, condor diet changed to a more terrestrial diet which, in turn, influenced their foraging patterns. We evaluated the diet by means of stable isotope analysis (δ13C, δ15N and δ34S) of current (last decade) and historical (1841-1933) feathers. We further evaluated the movement patterns of 23 condors using satellite tracking of individuals. Condors reduced their use of marine-derived prey in recent compared to historical times from 33±13% to less than 8±3% respectively, however, they still breed close to the coast. The average distance between the coast and nests was 62.5 km. Some nests were located close to the sea, but some birds forage up to 86k m from nesting sites and must cross over the mountain range to find food. The worldwide reduction in marine mammal carcasses, especially whales, may have major consequences on the foraging ecology of scavengers as well as on the flux of marine inputs within terrestrial ecosystems., Peer reviewed

Proyecto: //

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
oai:digital.csic.es:10261/281280
Dataset. 2018

DATA FROM: FEMALES MATE WITH MALES WITH DIMINISHED PHEOMELANIN-BASED COLORATION IN THE EURASIAN NUTHATCH SITTA EUROPAEA

  • Galván, Ismael
  • Rodríguez-Martínez, Sol
Mating success nuthatches - Dryad data Dataset used in the study., Sexual selection can drive the evolution of phenotypic traits because of female preferences for exaggerated trait expression in males. Sexual selection can also lead to the evolutionary loss of traits, a process to which female preferences for diminished male trait expression are hypothesized to contribute. However, empirical evidence of female preferences for diminished male traits is virtually lacking. Eurasian nuthatches Sitta europaea provide an opportunity to test this possibility, as a chestnut flank patch produced by the pigment pheomelanin is present since the first plumage of these birds and its color is more intense in nestlings in poor condition in our study population. It has been proposed that developing birds in poor condition may increase their production of pheomelanin as a detoxifying strategy. Female nuthatches may thus prefer mating with males showing flank feathers of diminished color, as this could indicate that males experienced good conditions early in development, which can positively affect the fitness of future generations. Here we show results according with this prediction in a wild population of Eurasian nuthatches, as adult males with lighter chestnut feathers paired earlier in the season, while chestnut coloration had no effect on female mating success. Chestnut color expression was not affected by the body condition of birds, suggesting that females obtain information on the body condition in early life of their potential mates and not on their current body condition. This constitutes one of the few examples of females mating with males showing diminished traits and provides the only explanation so far by which this process can occur., Peer reviewed

Proyecto: //

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
oai:digital.csic.es:10261/281296
Dataset. 2018

DATA FROM: MYCORRHIZAL SYMBIOSIS INCREASES THE BENEFITS OF PLANT FACILITATIVE INTERACTIONS

  • Montesinos-Navarro, Alicia
  • Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso
  • Verdú, Miguel
Data set with all the references and variables used as factors in the meta-analyses. (1) Experimental conditions, (2) Mycorrhizal treatment, (3) Ecosystem, (4) Performance measurement, including plant part (4a) and type of nutrient (4b) and (5) Mycorrhizal type. The species of the nurse and the facilitated plants are presented with the mean, sample size (N) and standard error (SE) of the performance measurement reported for the facilitated plant. Data for the control and treated treatments are presented in different columns. We considered “treated” the treatment in which the mycorrhizal fungi were expected to be reduced. NA stands for not available data. Table S3_70.xls, The diversity of pathways through which mycorrhizal fungi alter plant coexistence hinders the understanding of their effects on plant-plant interactions. The outcome of plant facilitative interactions can be indirectly affected by mycorrhizal symbiosis, ultimately shaping biodiversity patterns. We tested whether mycorrhizal symbiosis enhances plant facilitative interactions and whether its effect is consistent across different methodological approaches and biological scenarios. We conducted a meta-analysis of 215 cases (involving 21 nurse and 29 facilitated species), in which the performance of a facilitated plant species is measured in the presence or absence of mycorrhizal fungi. We show that mycorrhizal fungi significantly enhance plant facilitative interactions mainly through an increment in plant biomass (aboveground) and nutrient content, although their effects differ across biological contexts. In semiarid environments mycorrhizal symbiosis enhances plant facilitation, while its effect is non-significant in temperate ecosystems. In addition, arbuscular but not ecto-mycorrhizal (EMF) fungi significantly enhances plant facilitation, particularly increasing the P content of the plants more than EMF. Some knowledge gaps regarding the importance of this phenomenon have been detected in this meta-analysis. The effect of mycorrhizal symbiosis on plant facilitation has rarely been assessed in other ecosystems different from semiarid and temperate forests, and rarely considering other fungal benefits provided to plants besides nutrients. Finally, we are still far from understanding the effects of the whole fungal community on plant-plant interactions, and on plant species coexistence., Peer reviewed

Proyecto: //

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
oai:digital.csic.es:10261/281302
Dataset. 2018

DATA FROM: IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION ON INSECT HERBIVORY AND PLANT DEFENCES IN OAK TREES

  • Moreira Tomé, Xoaquín
  • Abdala-Roberts, Luis
  • Berny-Mier y Terán, Jorge C.
  • Covelo, Felisa
  • Mata Pombo, Raúl de la
  • Francisco Candeira, Marta
  • Hardwick, Bess
  • Pires, Ricardo Matheus
  • Roslin, Tomas
  • Schigel, Dmitry S.
  • Ten Hoopen, Jan P. J. G.
  • Timmermans, Bart G. H.
  • Van Dijk, Laura J. A.
  • Castagneyrol, Bastien
  • Tack, Ayco J. M.
data_Moreira et al_2018, Systematic comparisons of species interactions in urban vs. rural environments can improve our understanding of shifts in ecological processes due to urbanization. However, such studies are relatively uncommon and the mechanisms driving urbanization effects on species interactions (e.g., between plants and insect herbivores) remain elusive. Here we investigated the effects of urbanization on leaf herbivory by insect chewers and miners associated with the English oak (Quercus robur) by sampling trees in rural and urban areas throughout most of the latitudinal distribution of this species. In performing these comparisons, we also controlled for the size of the urban areas (18 cities) and gathered data on CO2 emissions. In addition, we assessed whether urbanization affected leaf chemical defences (phenolic compounds) and nutritional traits (phosphorus and nitrogen), and whether such changes correlated with herbivory levels. Urbanization significantly reduced leaf chewer damage but did not affect leaf miners. In addition, we found that leaves from urban locations had lower levels of chemical defences (condensed and hydrolysable tannins) and higher levels of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) compared to leaves in rural locations. The magnitude of urbanization effects on herbivory and leaf defences was not contingent upon city size. Importantly, while the effects of urbanization on chemical defences were associated with CO2 emissions, changes in leaf chewer damage were not associated with either leaf traits or CO2 levels. These results suggest that effects of urbanization on herbivory occur through mechanisms other than changes in the plant traits measured here. Overall, our simultaneous assessment of insect herbivory, plant traits, and abiotic correlates advances our understanding of the main drivers of urbanization effects on plant-herbivore interactions., Peer reviewed

Proyecto: //

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
oai:digital.csic.es:10261/281306
Dataset. 2018

DATA FROM: THE TIMING OF FRUGIVORE-MEDIATED SEED DISPERSAL EFFECTIVENESS

  • González-Varo, Juan P.
  • Arroyo, Juan M.
  • Jordano, Pedro
seed_rain_pistacia Data on the magnitude of seed rain in seed traps placed in different microhabitat types and in each of the study periods (early, mid and late) of the 2014–2015 fruiting season of Pistacia lentiscus (FIGURE 2a). viability_seeds_fruits Data on the viability test (‘flotation/sink’ method) conducted on depulped seeds from Pistacia lentiscus ripe (black) fruits (Figure S3 in Supplementary Material). seed_predation_pistacia Data on the seed predation experiment (FIGURE 3b). Each row corresponds to an individual Pistacia lentiscus seed within a seed depot. sowing_experiment_pistacia Data on the sowing experiment of Pistacia lentiscus seeds to assess seed germination (FIGURE 3c) and seedling survival (FIGURE 3d). Each row corresponds to an individual Pistacia lentiscus seed within a sowing station. timing_sde_pistacia Mean values of multiple demographic processes used to calculate the quantity (QT) and (QL) components of seed dispersal effectiveness (SDE) for different bird species groups contributing to seed dispersal in different periods and microhabitat types (FIGURE 4). seeds_pistacia_barcoding_viability Data on the Pistacia lentiscus seeds sampled for DNA barcoding analyses, which includes the bird species responsible for dispersal (FIGURE 2b) and the outcome of the viability test (FIGURE 3a)., The seed dispersal effectiveness framework allows assessing mutualistic services from frugivorous animals in terms of quantity and quality. Quantity accounts for the number of seeds dispersed and quality for the probability of recruitment of dispersed seeds. Research on this topic has largely focused on the spatial patterns of seed deposition because seed fates often vary between microhabitats due to differences in biotic and abiotic factors. However, the temporal dimension has remained completely overlooked despite these factors – and even local disperser assemblages – can change dramatically during long fruiting periods. Here, we test timing effects on seed dispersal effectiveness, using as study case a keystone shrub species dispersed by frugivorous birds and with a fruiting period of nine months. We evaluated quantity and quality in different microhabitats of a Mediterranean forest and different periods of the fruiting phenophase. We identified the bird species responsible for seed deposition through DNA barcoding and evaluated the probability of seedling recruitment through a series of field experiments on sequential demographic processes. We found that timing matters: the disperser assemblage was temporally structured, seed viability decreased markedly during the plant’s fruiting phenophase, and germination was lower for viable seeds dispersed in the fruiting peak. We show how small contributions to seed deposition by transient migratory species can result in a relevant effectiveness if they disperse seeds in a high-quality period for seedling recruitment. This study expands our understanding of seed dispersal effectiveness, highlighting the importance of timing and infrequent interactions for population and community dynamics., Peer reviewed

Proyecto: //

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
oai:digital.csic.es:10261/281311
Dataset. 2018

DATA FROM: PREDATION RISK DETERMINES PIGMENTATION PHENOTYPE IN NUTHATCHES BY MELANIN-RELATED GENE EXPRESSION EFFECTS

  • Galván, Ismael
Dataset used in the study Predation risk - Dryad.xls Predation risk - Dryad readme.txt, Pigments determine the appearance of organisms. However, pigment production can be associated to physiological constraints as in the case of pheomelanin, the sulphurated form of melanin whose synthesis in melanocytes consumes cysteine and consequently reduces the availability of glutathione (GSH) to exert antioxidant protection. Pheomelanogenesis may thus increase the susceptibility to suffer chronic oxidative stress. I investigated the possibility that environmental lability in the expression of genes regulating pheomelanogenesis protects from oxidative stress, a situation in which GSH is most required. By broadcasting adult alarm calls, I manipulated the perception of predation risk, a natural source of oxidative stress, in free-living Eurasian nuthatch Sitta europaea nestlings developing pheomelanin-pigmented flank feathers. The manipulation affected the consumption of GSH that resulted from the expression of two genes (Slc7a11 and Slc45a2) influencing cysteine/GSH availability in cells, as these genes were downregulated in the feather melanocytes of the nestlings with lowest intracellular antioxidant capacity (i.e., lowest GSH levels). Systemic oxidative damage increased with Slc7a11 expression in feather melanocytes, suggesting that the observed downregulation was physiologically advantageous. The nestlings exposed to an increased perception of predation risk developed flank feathers of reduced color intensity. These results indicate that perceived predation risk can determine the pigmentation phenotype by (probably epigenetic) effects on gene expression that protect from physiological constraints imposed by pheomelanin production., Peer reviewed

Proyecto: //

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
oai:digital.csic.es:10261/281323
Dataset. 2018

DATA FROM: BAYESIAN VECTOR TRANSMISSION MODEL DETECTS CONFLICTING INTERACTIONS FROM TRANSGENIC DISEASE‐RESISTANT GRAPEVINES

  • Zeilinger, Adam R.
  • Turek, Daniel
  • Cornara, Daniele
  • Sicard, Anne
  • Lindow, Steven E.
  • Almeida, Rodrigo P. P.
Vector transmission from DSF grapevines data set Data from vector transmission experiment for Xylella fastidiosa from DSF transgenic grapevines. File is an .rds file for loading directly into R. The file is a list of length 2. The first item in the list is metadata describing each variable of the data set, including total sample size. The second item is the data set itself. zeilinger_dsf_transmission_dataset.rds, Effective management of vector-borne plant pathogens often relies on disease-resistant cultivars. While heterogeneity in host resistance and in pathogen population density at the host population level play important and well-recognized roles in epidemiology, the effects of resistance traits on pathogen distribution at the individual host level, and the epidemiological consequences in turn, are poorly understood. Transgenic disease-resistant plants that produce bacterial Diffusible Signaling Factor (DSF) could provide resistance to the vector-borne bacterium Xylella fastidiosa by impeding plant colonization and reducing virulence. However, the effects of constitutive in planta production of DSF on insect vector transmission has remained unresolved. We investigated the transmission biology of X. fastidiosa in DSF and wild-type (WT) grapevines with the efficient vector Graphocephala atropunctata. We also developed a novel Bayesian hierarchical model to improve statistical inference on the multiple components of the vector transmission process. We found that insect vectors had a greater colonization efficiency on DSF plants—meaning they acquired a greater population size of X. fastidiosa—than on WT plants. However, DSF plants also maintained much lower X. fastidiosa populations. These apparently conflicting processes resulted in a lower but highly variable probability of transmission from DSF plants compared to WT plants. Our Bayesian model improved statistical inference compared to widely used frequentist statistics in part by estimating and correcting for imperfect detection of X. fastidiosa in plant and insect tissues. Overall, our results support current models on the roles that DSF plays in vector transmission of X. fastidiosa. In line with our hypothesis, DSF production reduced mean X. fastidiosa population density but increased heterogeneity within host plants. While DSF-producing plants could potentially improve disease management, our results suggest that they could, under some conditions, facilitate X. fastidiosa spread., Peer reviewed

Proyecto: //

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
oai:digital.csic.es:10261/281339
Dataset. 2018

DATA FROM: THE EVOLUTION OF IRIS COLOUR IN RELATION TO NOCTURNALITY IN OWLS

  • Passarotto, Arianna
  • Parejo, Deseada
  • Cruz-Miralles, Ángel
  • Avilés, Jesús M.
data for dryads Raw data used for comparative analyses on eye colour in owls, Birds, due to their multiple colourful displays, constitute a classic paradigm for the study of colour evolution. Although avian eyes are remarkably coloured, the functional basis behind inter‐specific variability in iris colouration remains poorly understood. Owls are an ideal system to shed light on the role of ecology in promoting iris colour evolution as they show inter‐specific variation in iris colour and in niche specialization with some species being strictly nocturnal and others active during the day. Owls perching for hunting at night might be unnoticed by both predators and their prey if they had dark irises, which would predict that dark irises were more likely to evolve in strictly nocturnal species than in diurnal ones. Using phylogenetic comparative models, we tested the camouflage hypothesis for eye colour. Ancestral state reconstruction revealed that the owl ancestor of the family Strigidae was more likely bright‐irided whereas the ancestor of the family Tytonidae was more likely dark‐irided. We found that iris colour and activity rhythm have more likely evolved in concert than independently, and a non‐significant trend of dark eyes to evolve more easily in owl species presenting strictly nocturnal habits than in diurnal species. The transition from diurnality to nocturnality was a previous requisite for the evolution of dark irises in owls. Taken together our results are only partly consistent with the camouflage hypothesis suggesting that dark irises in owls have primarily evolved to enhance concealment in nocturnal conditions., Peer reviewed

Proyecto: //

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
oai:digital.csic.es:10261/281344
Dataset. 2018

DATA FROM: GENOME-WIDE SIGNALS OF DRIFT AND LOCAL ADAPTATION DURING RAPID LINEAGE DIVERGENCE IN A SONGBIRD

  • Friis, Guillermo
  • Fandos, Guillermo
  • Zellmer, Amanda J.
  • McCormack, John E.
  • Faircloth, Brant C.
  • Milá, Borja
genolike_map20_q20_snp16_maf002_ind32_430K.beagle Input file of genotype likelihoods in Beagle format (.beagle.gz) for PCANGSD analysis. ORJUSTRUx8_biall_dp450_q40_perpopmiss075_hwe00001_maf002_LD02_neutral01 Dataset of 16,858 independent neutral SNPs from 64 samples in vcf format for STRUCTURE analysis. ORJU06x12_biall_dp450_q40_maf002_nomissing_hwe00001_noZ_neutral01 Dataset of 15,209 neutral SNPs used in the PCA intended for population structure correction in the redundancy analysis (RDA). ORJU06x12_biall_dp450_q40_maf002_nomissing_hwe00001_noZ Dataset of 15,252 SNPs used in the redundancy analysis. ORJU06x12_biall_dp450_q40_maf002_nomissing_hwe00001_sel01_BAYESCENV Subset of 49 SNP outliers identified with BayScEnv for the second redundancy analysis in the manuscript. ORJUGEO_coords_ALLSAMPLES Table of sample location and geographic coordinates for all sequenced samples of the study. ORJUGEO_coords_ClimVariables Sample data and WorldClim environmental data (Fick, S.E. and R.J. Hijmans, 2017. Worldclim 2: New 1-km spatial resolution climate surfaces for global land areas. International Journal of Climatology.) for each one of the samples included in the genotype-environment association analyses., The formation of independent evolutionary lineages involves neutral and selective factors, and understanding their relative roles in population divergence is a fundamental goal of speciation research. Correlations between allele frequencies and environmental variability can reveal the role of selection, yet the relative contribution of drift can be difficult to establish. Recently diversified taxa like the Oregon junco (Aves, Passerellidae, Junco hyemalis oreganus) of western North America provide ideal scenarios to apply genetic-environment association analyses (GEA) while controlling for population structure. Analysis of genome-wide SNP loci revealed marked genetic structure consisting of differentiated populations in isolated, dry southern mountain ranges, and less divergent, recently expanded populations in humid northern latitudes. We used correlations between genomic and environmental variance to test for three specific modes of evolutionary divergence: (i) drift in geographic isolation, (ii) differentiation along continuous selective gradients, and (iii) isolation by adaptation. We found evidence of strong drift in southern mountains, but also signals of local adaptation driven by temperature, precipitation, elevation and vegetation, especially when controlling for population history. We identified numerous variants under selection scattered across the genome, suggesting that local adaptation can promote rapid differentiation when acting over multiple independent loci., Peer reviewed

Proyecto: //

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
oai:digital.csic.es:10261/281351
Dataset. 2018

DATA FROM: SHOREBIRDS AS IMPORTANT VECTORS FOR PLANT DISPERSAL IN EUROPE

  • Lovas-Kiss, Ádám
  • Sánchez, Marta I.
  • Wilkinson, David M.
  • Coughlan, Neil E.
  • Alves, José A.
  • Green, Andy J.
Raw data on intact seeds in shorebirds This file contains data of the faecal samples collected from the field in different locations with date, faeces sample mass, plant species name, and the number of seeds per taxon. This file was made with Microsoft Excel 2016 shorebird.xlsx, Shorebirds (Charadriiformes) undergo rapid migrations with potential for long-distance dispersal (LDD) of plants. We studied the frequency of endozoochory by shorebirds in different parts of Europe covering a broad latitudinal range and different seasons. We assessed whether plants dispersed conformed to morphological dispersal syndromes. A total of 409 excreta samples (271 faeces and 138 pellets) were collected from redshank (Tringa totanus), black-winged stilt (Himantopus himantopus), pied avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta), northern lapwing (Vanellus vanellus), Eurasian curlew (Numenius arquata) and black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa) in south-west Spain, north-west England, southern Ireland and Iceland in 2005 and 2016, and intact seeds were extracted and identified. Godwits were sampled just before or after migratory movements between England and Iceland. The germinability of seeds was tested. Intact diaspores were recovered from all bird species and study areas, and were present in 13% of samples overall. Thirteen plant families were represented, including Charophyceae and 26 angiosperm taxa. Only four species had an "endozoochory syndrome". Four alien species were recorded. Ellenberg values classified three species as aquatic and 20 as terrestrial. Overall, 89% of seeds were from terrestrial plants, and 11% from aquatic plants. Average seed length was higher in redshank pellets than in their faeces. Six species were germinated, none of which had an endozoochory syndrome. Seeds were recorded during spring and autumn migration. Plant species recorded have broad latitudinal ranges consistent with LDD via shorebirds. Crucially, morphological syndromes do not adequately predict LDD potential, and more empirical work is required to identify which plants are dispersed by shorebirds. Incorporating endozoochory by shorebirds and other migratory waterbirds into plant distribution models would allow us to better understand the natural processes that facilitated colonization of oceanic islands, or to improve predictions of how plants will respond to climate change, or how alien species spread., Peer reviewed

Proyecto: //

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