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Galaxy velocity bias in cosmological simulations: Towards per cent-level calibration

Biblos-e Archivo. Repositorio Institucional de la UAM
  • Anbajagane, Dhayaa
  • Aung, Han
  • Evrard, August E.
  • Farahi, Arya
  • Nagai, Daisuke
  • Barnes, David J.
  • Cui, Weiguang
  • Dolag, Klaus
  • McCarthy, Ian G.
  • Rasia, Elena
  • Yepes Alonso, Gustavo
This is a pre-copyedited, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society following peer review. The version of record Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 510.2 (2022): 2980-2997 is available online at: https://academic.oup.com/mnras/article-abstract/510/2/2980/6472247?redirectedFrom=fulltext, Galaxy cluster masses, rich with cosmological information, can be estimated from internal dark matter (DM) velocity dispersions, which in turn can be observationally inferred from satellite galaxy velocities. However, galaxies are biased tracers of the DM, and the bias can vary over host halo and galaxy properties as well as time. We precisely calibrate the velocity bias, bv - defined as the ratio of galaxy and DM velocity dispersions - as a function of redshift, host halo mass, and galaxy stellar mass threshold (M), for massive haloes (200cM) from five cosmological simulations: IllustrisTNG, Magneticum, Bahamas + Macsis, The Three Hundred Project, and MultiDark Planck-2. We first compare scaling relations for galaxy and DM velocity dispersion across simulations; the former is estimated using a new ensemble velocity likelihood method that is unbiased for low galaxy counts per halo, while the latter uses a local linear regression. The simulations show consistent trends of bv increasing with M200c and decreasing with redshift and M. The ensemble-estimated theoretical uncertainty in bv is 2-3 per cent, but becomes percent-level when considering only the three highest resolution simulations. We update the mass-richness normalization for an SDSS redMaPPer cluster sample, and find our improved bv estimates reduce the normalization uncertainty from 22 to 8 per cent, demonstrating that dynamical mass estimation is competitive with weak lensing mass estimation. We discuss necessary steps for further improving this precision. Our estimates for 200c are made publicly available




A radio-jet driven outflow in the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 2110?

DIGITAL.INTA Repositorio Digital del Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial
  • Peralta de Arriba, L.
  • Alonso Herrero, A.
  • García Burillo, S.
  • García Bernete, I.
  • Villar Martín, M.
  • García Lorenzo, B.
  • Davies, R. I.
  • Rosario, D.
  • Hönig, S. F.
  • Levenson, N. A.
  • Packham, C.
  • Ramos Almeida, C.
  • Pereira Santaella, M.
  • Audibert, A.
  • Bellocchi, E.
  • Hicks, E. K. S.
  • Labiano, Á.
  • Ricci, C.
  • Rigopoulou, D.
We present a spatially-resolved study of the ionised gas in the central 2 kpc of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 2110 and investigate the role of its moderate luminosity radio jet (kinetic radio power of $P_\mathrm{jet} = 2.3 \times 10^{43}\mathrm{erg\ s^{-1}}$). We use new optical integral-field observations taken with the MEGARA spectrograph at GTC. We fit the emission lines with a maximum of two Gaussian components, except at the AGN position where we used three. Aided by existing stellar kinematics, we use the observed velocity and velocity dispersion of the emission lines to classify the different kinematic components. The disc component is characterised by lines with $\sigma \sim 60-200\ \mathrm{km\ s^{-1}}$. The outflow component has typical values of $\sigma \sim 700\ \mathrm{km\ s^{-1}}$ and is confined to the central 400 pc, which is coincident with linear part of the radio jet detected in NGC 2110. At the AGN position, the [O III]$\lambda$5007 line shows high velocity components reaching at least $1000\ \mathrm{km\ s^{-1}}$. This and the high velocity dispersions indicate the presence of outflowing gas outside the galaxy plane. Spatially-resolved diagnostic diagrams reveal mostly LI(N)ER-like excitation in the outflow and some regions in the disc, which could be due to the presence of shocks. However, there is also Seyfert-like excitation beyond the bending of the radio jet, probably tracing the edge of the ionisation cone that intercepts with the disc of the galaxy. NGC 2110 follows well the observational trends between the outflow properties and the jet radio power found for a few nearby Seyfert galaxies. All these pieces of information suggest that part of observed ionised outflow in NGC 2110 might be driven by the radio jet. However, the radio jet was bent at radial distances of 200 pc (in projection) from the AGN, and beyond there, most of the gas in the galaxy disc is rotating., L.P.d.A., A.A.H., S.G.B., and M.V.M. acknowledge financial support from grant PGC2018-094671-B-I00 funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 and by ERDF A way of making Europe. A.A.H. and M.V.M. also acknowledge financial support from grant PID2021-124665NB-I00 funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and the State Agency of Research MCIN/AEI/ 10.13039/501100011033 and ERDF A way of making Europe. S.G.B. acknowledges support from the research project PID2019-106027GAC44 of the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación. I.G.B. and D.R. acknowledge support from STFC through grant ST/S000488/1. B.G.L. acknowledges support from grants PID2019-107010GB-100 and the Severo Ochoa CEX2019-000920-S. C.R.A. acknowledges the project “Feeding and feedback in active galaxies”, with reference PID2019-106027GB-C42, funded by MICINNAEI/10.13039/501100011033, and the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 860744 (BID4BEST). C.R.A. and A.A. acknowledge the project “Quantifying the impact of quasar feedback on galaxy evolution”, with reference EUR2020-112266, funded by MICINN-AEI/10.13039/501100011033 and the European Union NextGenerationEU/PRTR; the Consejería de Economía, Conocimiento y Empleo del Gobierno de Canarias and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) under grant “Quasar feedback and molecular gas reservoirs”, with reference ProID2020010105, ACCISI/FEDER, UE. E.B. acknowledges the María Zambrano program of the Spanish Ministerio de Universidades funded by the Next Generation European Union and is also partly supported by grant RTI2018-096188-B-I00 funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033. C.R. acknowledges support from the Fondecyt Iniciacion grant 11190831 and ANID BASAL project FB210003. D.R. acknowledges support from University of Oxford John Fell Fund., Peerreview




The dust-gas AGN torus as constrained from X-ray and mid-infrared observations

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Esparza-Arredondo, D.
  • González-Martín, Omaira
  • Dultzin, D.
  • Masegosa, Josefa
  • Ramos-Almeida, C.
  • García-Bernete, I.
  • Fritz, J.
  • Osorio-Clavijo, N.
Context. In recent decades, several multiwavelength studies have been dedicated to exploring the properties of the obscuring material in active galactic nuclei (AGN). Various models have been developed to describe the structure and distribution of this material and constrain its physical and geometrical parameters through spectral fitting techniques. However, questions around the way in which torus mid-infrared (mid-IR) and X-ray emission are related remain unanswered. Aims. In this work, we aim to study whether the dust continuum at mid-IR and gas reflection at X-rays have the same distribution in a sample of AGN. Methods. We carefully selected a sample of 36 nearby AGN with NuSTAR and Spitzer spectra available that satisfy the following criteria: (1) the AGN component dominates the mid-IR spectra (i.e., the stellar and interstellar medium components contribute less than 50% to the spectrum), and (2) the reflection component contributes significantly to the X-ray spectrum. Furthermore, we discarded the sources whose reflection component could be produced by ionized material in the disk. We derived the properties of the nuclear dust and gas through a spectral fitting, using models developed for mid-IR and X-ray wavelengths assuming smooth and clumpy distributions for this structure. Results. We find that a combination of smooth and clumpy distributions of gas and dust, respectively, is preferred for ∼80% of sources with good spectral fits according to the Akaike criterion. However, considering extra information about each individual source, such as the absorption variability, we find that ∼50% of our sources are best described by a clumpy distribution of both dust and gas. The remaining ∼50% of our sources can still be explained with a smooth distribution of gas and a clumpy distribution of dust. Furthermore, we explored the torus dust-to-gas ratio, finding that it is [0.01–1] times that of the interstellar medium. Conclusions. The results presented in this paper suggest that the distribution of the gas and dust in AGN is complex. We find at least six scenarios to explain the observed properties of our sample. In these scenarios, three gas–dust distribution combinations are possible: clumpy–clumpy, smooth–smooth, and smooth–clumpy. Most of them are in agreement with the notion that gas could also be located in the dust-free region, which is consistent with the dust-to-gas ratio found. © ESO 2021., This work made use of data from the NuSTAR mission, a project led by CalTech, managed by JPL, and funded by NASA. We thank the NuSTAR Operations, Software and Calibration teams for support with the execution and analysis of these observations. This research has made use of the NuSTAR Data Analysis Software (NuSTAR-DAS) jointly developed by the ASI Science Data Center (ASDC, Italy) and CalTech. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. D.E.-A. and N.O.-C. acknowledge support from a CONACYT scholarship. This research is mainly funded by the UNAM PAPIIT projects IN105720 and IA113719 (PI O.G.-M. and PI D.D.). J.M. acknowledges financial support by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MEC) under grant no. AYA2016-76682-C3 and from the State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award to the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (SEV-2017-0709). C.R.-A. acknowledges financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MCIU) under grant with reference RYC-2014-15779, from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No 860744 (BiD4BESt), from the State Research Agency (AEI-MCINN) of the Spanish MCIU under grants "Feeding and feedback in active galaxies" with reference PID2019-106027GB-C4 and "Quantifying the impact of quasar feedback on galaxy evolution (QSOFEED)" with reference EUR2020-112266. CRA also acknowledges support from the Consejeria de Economia, Conocimiento y Empleo del Gobierno de Canarias and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) under grant with reference ProID2020010105 and from IAC project P/301404, financed by the Ministry of Science and Innovation, through the State Budget and by the Canary Islands Department of Economy, Knowledge and Employment, through the Regional Budget of the Autonomous Community. I.G.-B. acknowledges support from STFC through grant ST/S000488 1., Peer reviewed




Capturing dual AGN activity and kiloparsec-scale outflows in IRAS 20210+1121

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Saturni, F. G.
  • Vietri, G.
  • Piconcelli, E.
  • Vignali, C.
  • Bischetti, M.
  • Bongiorno, A.
  • Cazzoli, S.
  • Feruglio, C.
  • Fiore, F.
  • Husemann, B.
  • Ramos Almeida, C.
The most standard scenario for the evolution of massive galaxies across cosmic time assumes a correspondence based on the interplay between active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback, which injects large amounts of energy into the host environment, and galaxy mergers, with their ability to trigger massive star formation events and accretion onto supermassive black holes. Interacting systems hosting AGN are useful laboratories for obtaining key insights into both phenomena. In this context, we present an analysis of the optical spectral properties of IRAS 20210+1121 (I20210), a merging system at z  =  0.056. According to X-ray data, this object comprises two interacting galaxies, each hosting an obscured AGN. The optical spectra confirm the presence of AGN features in both galaxies. In particular, we are able to provide a Seyfert classification for I20210 North. The spectrum of I20120 South shows broad blueshifted components associated with the most intense emission lines that indicate the presence of an ionized outflow, for which we derive a maximum velocity of ∼2000 km s-1, an extension of ∼2 kpc, and a mass rate of ∼0.6  M⊙ yr-1. We also report the existence of an ionized nebular component with v  ∼  1000 km s-1 at ∼6.5 kpc southwards of I20210 South, which can be interpreted as disrupted gas ejected from the host galaxy by the action of the outflow. I20120 therefore exhibits a double obscured AGN, with one of them showing evidence of ongoing events for AGN-powered outflows. Future spatially resolved spectroscopy will allow for an accurate mapping of the gas kinematics in this AGN pair and evaluate the impact of the outflow on both the interstellar medium and the galaxy environment. © ESO 2021., GV, EP, CV, MB, CF and FF acknowledge support from PRIN MIUR project "Black Hole winds and the Baryon Life Cycle of Galaxies: the stone-guest at the galaxy evolution supper", contract #2017PH3WAT. GV also acknowledges financial support from Premiale 2015 MITic (PI: B. Garilli). CRA acknowledges financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MCIU) under grant with reference RYC-2014-15779, from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Marie Skodowska-Curie grant agreement No 860744 (BiD4BESt), from the State Research Agency (AEI-MCINN) of the Spanish MCIU under grants "Feeding and feedback in active galaxies" with reference PID2019-106027GB-C42, "Feeding, feedback and obscuration in active galaxies" with reference AYA2016-76682-C3-2-P, and "Quantifying the impact of quasar feedback on galaxy evolution (QSOFEED)" with reference EUR2020-112266. CRA also acknowledges support from the Consejeria de Economia, Conocimiento y Empleo del Gobierno de Canarias and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) under grant with reference ProID2020010105 and from IAC project P/301404, financed by the Ministry of Science and Innovation, through the State Budget and by the Canary Islands Department of Economy, Knowledge and Employment, through the Regional Budget of the Autonomous Community. Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundacion Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. IRAF is distributed by the National Optical Astronomy Observatories, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation., With funding from the Spanish government through the Severo Ochoa Centre of Excellence accreditation SEV-2017-0709., Peer reviewed




Modeling the Unresolved NIR–MIR SEDs of Local (z < 0.1) QSOs

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Martínez-Paredes, M.
  • González-Martín, Omaira
  • HyeongHan, K.
  • Geier, S.
  • García-Bernete, Ismael
  • Ramos-Almeida, Cristina
  • Alonso-Herrero, A.
  • Aretxaga, Itziar
  • Kim, M.
  • Sohn, B. W.
  • Masegosa, Josefa
To study the nuclear (≲1 kpc) dust of nearby (z < 0.1) quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), we obtained new near-infrared (NIR) high angular resolution (∼0.″3) photometry in the H and Ks bands for 13 QSOs with available mid-infrared (MIR) high angular resolution spectroscopy (∼7.5-13.5 μm). We find that in most QSOs, the NIR emission is unresolved. We subtract the contribution from the accretion disk, which decreases from NIR (∼35%) to MIR (∼2.4%). We also estimate these percentages assuming a bluer accretion disk and find that the contribution in the MIR is nearly seven times larger. We find that the majority of objects (64%, 9/13) are better fitted by the disk+wind H17 model, while others can be fitted by the smooth F06 (14%, 2/13), clumpy N08 (7%, 1/13), clumpy H10 (7%, 1/13), and two-phase media S16 (7%, 1/13) models. However, if we assume the bluer accretion disk, the models fit only 2/13 objects. We measured two NIR-to-MIR spectral indexes, α NIR-MIR(1.6-8.7 μm) and α NIR-MIR(2.2-8.7 μm), and two MIR spectral indexes, α MIR(7.8-9.8 μm) and α MIR(9.8-11.7 μm), from models and observations. From observations, we find that the NIR-to-MIR spectral indexes are ∼-1.1, and the MIR spectral indexes are ∼-0.3. Comparing the synthetic and observed values, we find that none of the models simultaneously match the measured NIR-to-MIR and 7.8-9.8 μm slopes. However, we note that measuring α MIR(7.8-9.8 μm) on the starburst-subtracted Spitzer/IRS spectrum gives values of the slopes (∼-2) that are similar to the synthetic values obtained from the models. © 2021. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved., M.M.-P. acknowledges support from the KASI postdoctoral fellowships. O.G.-M. acknowledges support from the UNAM PAPIIT [IN105720]. I.G.B. acknowledges support from the STFC through grant ST/S000488/1. C.R.A. acknowledges financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MCIU) under grant RYC-2014–15779, the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 860744 (BiD4BESt), and the State Research Agency (AEI-MCINN) of the Spanish MCIU under grants "Feeding and feedback in active galaxies" with reference PID2019–106027GB-C42 and "Quantifying the impact of quasar feedback on galaxy evolution (QSOFEED)" with reference EUR2020–112266. C.R.A. also acknowledges support from the Consejería de Economía, Conocimiento y Empleo del Gobierno de Canarias and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) under grant ProID2020010105 and from IAC project P/301404, financed by the Ministry of Science and Innovation through the State Budget and by the Canary Islands Department of Economy, Knowledge and Employment through the Regional Budget of the Autonomous Community. A.A.-H. acknowledges support from PGC2018-094671-B-I00 (MCIU/AEI/FEDER,UE). A.A.-H.'s work was done under project No. MDM-2017-0737 Unidad de Excelencia "María de Maeztu"- Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC). I.A. acknowledges support from project CB2016-281948. J.M. acknowledges financial support from the State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award to the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709) and research projects AYA2016-76682-C3-1-P (AEI/FEDER, UE) and PID2019-106027GB-C41 (AEI/FEDER, UE)., Peer reviewed




HARMONI view of the host galaxies of active galactic nuclei around cosmic noon, Resolved stellar morpho-kinematics and the M BH-σ relation

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • García-Lorenzo, Begoña
  • Monreal-Ibero, Ana
  • Pereira-Santaella, Miguel
  • Thatte, Niranjan A.
  • Ramos Almeida, C.
  • Mediavilla, Rosa
[Context] The formation and evolution of galaxies appear linked to the growth of supermassive black holes, as evidenced by empirical scaling relations in nearby galaxies. Understanding this co-evolution over cosmic time requires the revelation of the dynamical state of galaxies and the measurement of the mass of their central black holes (MBH) at a range of cosmic distances. Bright active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are ideal for this purpose. [Aims] The High Angular Resolution Monolithic Optical and Near-infrared Integral field spectrograph (HARMONI), the first light integral-field spectrograph for the Extremely Large Telescope, will transform visible and near-infrared ground-based astrophysics thanks to its advances in sensitivity and angular resolution. We aim to analyse the capabilities of HARMONI to reveal the stellar morpho-kinematic properties of the host galaxies of AGNs at about cosmic noon. [Methods] We made use of the simulation pipeline for HARMONI (HSIM) to create mock observations of representative AGN host galaxies at redshifts around cosmic noon. We used observations taken with the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer of nearby galaxies showing different morphologies and dynamical stages combined with theoretical AGN spectra to create the target inputs for HSIM. [Results] According to our simulations, an on-source integration time of three hours should be enough to measure the MBH and to trace the morphology and stellar kinematics of the brightest host galaxies of AGNs beyond cosmic noon. For host galaxies with stellar masses < 1011 M⊙, longer exposure times are mandatory to spatially resolve the stellar kinematics., B.G.-L. and A.M.-I. acknowledge support from the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MCIU), Agencia Estatal de Investigación (AEI), and the Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (EU-FEDER) under projects with references AYA2015-68217-P and PID2019-107010GB-100. B.G.-L., A.M.-I., C.R.A. and E.M.G. also acknowledge financial support from the State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa award to the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (SEV-2015-0548 and CEX2019-000920-S). M.P.S. acknowledges support from the Comunidad de Madrid through the Atracción de Talento Investigador Grant 2018-T1/TIC-11035 and PID2019-105423GA-I00 (MCIU/AEI/EU-FEDER). N.T. acknowledges support from the Science and Technology Facilities Council (grant ST/N002717/1), as part of the UK E-ELT Programme at the University of Oxford. C.R.A. acknowledges financial support from the Spanish MCIU under grant with reference RYC-2014-15779, from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 860744 (BiD4BESt), from the State Research Agency (AEI-MCINN) of the Spanish MCIU under grants PID2019-106027GBC42 and EUR2020-112266. C.R.A. also acknowledges support from the Consejería de Economía, Conocimiento y Empleo del Gobierno de Canarias and the EU-FEDER under grant with reference ProID2020010105. L.G. acknowledges financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MCIU) under the 2019 Ramón y Cajal program RYC2019-027683 and from the Spanish MCIU project HOSTFLOWS PID2020-115253GA-I00.




Unexplored outflows in nearby low luminosity AGNs

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Cazzoli, S.
  • Hermosa Muñoz, L.
  • Márquez, Isabel
  • Masegosa, Josefa
  • Castillo-Morales, Á.
  • Gil de Paz, A.
  • Hernández-García, L.
  • La Franca, F.
  • Ramos Almeida, C.
This is an Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited., Context. Multi-phase outflows play a central role in galaxy evolution shaping the properties of galaxies. Understanding outflows and their effects in low luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs), such as low ionisation nuclear emission line regions (LINERs), is essential. LINERs bridge the gap between normal and active galaxies, being the most numerous AGN population in the local Universe. Aims. Our goal is to analyse the kinematics and ionisation mechanisms of the multi-phase gas of NGC 1052, the prototypical LINER, in order to detect and map the ionised and neutral phases of the putative outflow. Methods. We obtained Very Large Telescope MUSE and Gran Telescopio Canarias MEGARA optical integral field spectroscopy data for NGC 1052. In addition to stellar kinematics maps, by modelling spectral lines with multiple Gaussian components, we obtained flux, kinematic, and excitation maps of both ionised and neutral gas. Results. The stars are distributed in a dynamically hot disc (V/σ ∼ 1.2), with a centrally peaked velocity dispersion map (σc = 201 ± 10 km s−1) and large observed velocity amplitudes (ΔV = 167 ± 19 km s−1). The ionised gas, probed by the primary component is detected up to ∼30″ (∼3.3 kpc) mostly in the polar direction with blue and red velocities (∣V∣ < 250 km s−1). The velocity dispersion map shows a notable enhancement (σ > 90 km s−1) crossing the galaxy along the major axis of rotation in the central 10″. The secondary component has a bipolar morphology, velocity dispersion larger than 150 km s−1, and velocities up to 660 km s−1. A third component is detected with MUSE (and barely with MEGARA), but it is not spatially resolved. The broad-line region (BLR) component (used to model the broad Hα emission only) has a full width at half maximum of 2427 ± 332 and 2350 ± 470 km s−1 for MUSE and MEGARA data, respectively. The maps of the NaD absorption indicate optically thick neutral gas with complex kinematics. The velocity field is consistent with a slow rotating disc (ΔV = 77 ± 12 km s−1), but the velocity dispersion map is off-centred without any counterpart in the (centrally peaked) flux map.
Conclusions. We found evidence of an ionised gas outflow (secondary component) with a mass of 1.6 ± 0.6 × 105 M⊙, and mass rate of 0.4 ± 0.2 M⊙ yr−1. The outflow is propagating in a cocoon of gas with enhanced turbulence and might be triggering the onset of kiloparsec-scale buoyant bubbles (polar emission), both probed by the primary component. Taking into account the energy and kinetic power of the outflow (1.3 ± 0.9 × 1053 erg and 8.8 ± 3.5 × 1040 erg s−1, respectively) as well as its alignment with both the jet and the cocoon, and that the gas is collisionally ionised (due to gas compression), we consider that the most likely power source of the outflow is the jet, although some contribution from the AGN is possible. The hints of the presence of a neutral gas outflow are weak. © S. Sawada-Satoh et al. 2022., S.C., I.M., J.M. and L.H.M. acknowledge financial support from the State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the ‘Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa’ award to the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709). These authors are also supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness under grants no. AYA2016-76682-C3 and PID2019-106027GB-C41. L.H.M. acknowledges financial support under the FPI grant BES-2017-082471. A.G.d.P. and A.C.M. acknowledge the grant RTI-2018-096188-B-I00. L.H.G. acknowledges funds by ANID – Millennium Science Initiative Program – ICN12_009 awarded to the Millennium Institute of Astrophysics (MAS). F.L.F. acknowledges support from PRIN MIUR project ‘Black Hole winds and the Baryon Life Cycle of Galaxies: the stone-guest at the galaxy evolution supper’, contract no. 2017PH3WAT. C.R.A. acknowledges financial support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 860744 (BiD4BESt) and from the State Research Agency (AEI-MCINN) and the Spanish MCINN under grant ‘Feeding and feedback in active galaxies’, with reference PID2019-106027GB-C42. This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED), which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. We acknowledge the usage of the HyperLeda database (http://leda.univ-lyon1.fr). This work has made extensive use of IRAF and PYTHON, particularly with ASTROPYhttp://www.astropy.org (Astropy Collaboration 2013, 2018), MATPLOTLIB (Hunter 2007), NUMPY and LMFIT. This paper made use of the plotting package JMAPLOT, developed by Jesús Maíz-Apellániz available at: https://jmaiz.cab.intacsic.es/software/jmaplot/current/html/jmaplot_overview.html. This research has made use of the Skycat tool that combines visualisation of images and access to catalogues and archive data for astronomy. In particular, EXTRACTOR as part of the GAIA (Graphical Astronomy and Image Analysis Tool) package., Peer reviewed




The miniJPAS survey: AGN and host galaxy coevolution of X-ray-selected sources

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • López, I. E.
  • Díaz-García, L. A.
  • González Delgado, Rosa M.
  • Márquez, Isabel
  • Pović, Mirjana
  • Benítez, Narciso
  • Ramió, H. V.
Full list of authors: Lopez, I. E.; Brusa, M.; Bonoli, S.; Shankar, F.; Acharya, N.; Laloux, B.; Dolag, K.; Georgakakis, A.; Lapi, A.; Almeida, C. Ramos; Salvato, M.; Chaves-Montero, J.; Coelho, P.; Diaz-Garcia, L. A.; Fernandez-Ontiveros, J. A.; Hernan-Caballero, A.; Delgado, R. M. Gonzalez; Marquez, I.; Povic, M.; Soria, R.; Queiroz, C.; Rahna, P. T.; Abramo, R.; Alcaniz, J.; Benitez, N.; Carneiro, S.; Cenarro, J.; Cristobal-Hornillos, D.; Dupke, R.; Ederoclite, A.; Lopez-Sanjuan, C.; Marin-Franch, A.; de Oliveira, C. Mendes; Moles, M.; Sodre Jr, L.; Taylor, K.; Varela, J.; Ramio, H. V.--This is an Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited., Studies indicate strong evidence of a scaling relation in the local Universe between the supermassive black hole mass (MBH) and the stellar mass of their host galaxies (M⋆). They even show similar histories across cosmic times of their differential terms: the star formation rate (SFR) and black hole accretion rate (BHAR). However, a clear picture of this coevolution is far from being understood. We selected an X-ray sample of active galactic nuclei (AGN) up to z = 2.5 in the miniJPAS footprint. Their X-ray to infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) have been modeled with the CIGALE code, constraining the emission to 68 bands, from which 54 are the narrow filters from the miniJPAS survey. For a final sample of 308 galaxies, we derived their physical properties, such as their M⋆, SFR, star formation history (SFH), and the luminosity produced by the accretion process of the central BH (LAGN). For a subsample of 113 sources, we also fit their optical spectra to obtain the gas velocity dispersion from the broad emission lines and estimated the MBH. We calculated the BHAR in physical units depending on two radiative efficiency regimes. We find that the Eddington ratios (λEdd) and its popular proxy (LX/M⋆) have a difference of 0.6 dex, on average, and a KS test indicates that they come from different distributions. Our sources exhibit a considerable scatter on the MBH − M⋆ scaling relation, which can explain the difference between λEdd and its proxy. We also modeled three evolution scenarios for each source to recover the integral properties at z = 0. Using the SFR and BHAR, we show a notable diminution in the scattering between MBH − M⋆. For the last scenario, we considered the SFH and a simple energy budget for the AGN accretion, and we retrieved a relation similar to the calibrations known for the local Universe. Our study covers ∼1 deg2 in the sky and is sensitive to biases in luminosity. Nevertheless, we show that, for bright sources, the link between the differential values (SFR and BHAR) and their decoupling based on an energy limit is the key that leads to the local MBH − M⋆ scaling relation. In the future, we plan to extend this methodology to a thousand degrees of the sky using JPAS with an X-ray selection from eROSITA, to obtain an unbiased distribution of BHAR and Eddington ratios. © The Authors 2023., This action has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 860744 “Big Data Applications for Black Hole Evolution Sutdies” (BID4BEST, https://www.bid4best.org/). This paper has gone through internal review by the J-PAS collaboration. The color schemes used in this work are color-blind friendly from Paul Tol’s Notes (https://personal.sron.nl/~pault/). We also acknowledge the use of computational resources from the parallel computing cluster of the Open Physics Hub (https://site.unibo.it/openphysicshub/en) at the Physics and Astronomy Department of the University of Bologna. We also kindly thank Dr. Alison Coil and Dr. Christopher Willmer for sharing the MMT spectra. I.E.L. thanks E. Marchesini for feedback on this work. A.L. is partly supported by the PRIN MIUR 2017 prot. 20173ML3WW 002 “Opening the ALMA window on the cosmic evolution of gas, stars, and massive black holes”. K.D. acknowledges support by the COMPLEX project from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program grant agreement ERC-2019-AdG 882679. C.R.A. acknowledges the projects “Feeding and feedback in active galaxies”, with reference PID2019-106027GB-C42, funded by MICINN-AEI/10.13039/501100011033, “Quantifying the impact of quasar feedback on galaxy evolution”, with reference EUR2020-112266, funded by MICINN-AEI/10.13039/501100011033 and the European Union NextGenerationEU/PRTR, and from the Consejería de Economía, Conocimiento y Empleo del Gobierno de Canarias and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) under grant “Quasar feedback and molecular gas reservoirs”, with reference ProID2020010105, ACCISI/FEDER, UE. J.C.M. acknowledges partial support from the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MCIU/AEI/FEDER, UE) through the grant PGC2018-097585-B-C22. J.C.M. also acknowledges support from the European Union’s Horizon Europe research and innovation programme (COSMO-LYA, grant agreement 101044612). P.C. acknowledges support from Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) under grant 310555/2021-3 and from Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) process number 2021/08813-7. L.A.D.G. and R.M.G.D. acknowledge financial support from the State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the “Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa” award to the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709), and to the PID2019-109067-GB100. I.M. acknowledges financial support from the State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the “Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa” award to the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709). I.M. is also supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness under grant no. PID2019-106027GB-C41. R.S. acknowledges grant number 12073029 from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC). R.A.D. acknowledges support from the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico -CNPq through BP grant 308105/2018-4, and the Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos – FINEP grants REF. 1217/13 – 01.13.0279.00 and REF 0859/10 – 01.10.0663.00 and also FAPERJ PRONEX grant E-26/110.566/2010 for hardware funding support for the J-PAS project through the National Observatory of Brazil and Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas. L.S.J. acknowledges the support from CNPq (308994/2021-3) and FAPESP (2011/51680-6). Based on observations made with the JST/T250 telescope at the Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre (OAJ), in Teruel, owned, managed, and operated by the Centro de Estudios de Física del Cosmos de Aragón (CEFCA). We acknowledge the OAJ Data Processing and Archiving Unit (UPAD) for reducing and calibrating the OAJ data used in this work. Funding for the J-PAS Project has been provided by the Governments of Spain and Aragón through the Fondo de Inversión de Teruel, European FEDER funding and the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities, and by the Brazilian agencies FINEP, FAPESP, FAPERJ and by the National Observatory of Brazil. Additional funding was also provided by the Tartu Observatory and by the J-PAS Chinese Astronomical Consortium. Funding for OAJ, UPAD, and CEFCA has been provided by the Governments of Spain and Aragón through the Fondo de Inversiones de Teruel; the Aragón Government through the Research Groups E96, E103, and E16_17R; the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MCIU/AEI/FEDER, UE) with grant PGC2018-097585-B-C21; the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO/FEDER, UE) under AYA2015-66211-C2-1-P, AYA2015-66211-C2-2, AYA2012-30789, and ICTS-2009-14; and European FEDER funding (FCDD10-4E-867, FCDD13-4E-2685). Funding for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Science Foundation, the US Department of Energy, the Japanese Monbukagakusho, and the Max Planck Society. The SDSS website is http://www.sdss.org/. The SDSS is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC) for the Participating Institutions. The Participating Institutions are The University of Chicago, Fermilab, the Institute for Advanced Study, the Japan Participation Group, The Johns Hopkins University, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), the Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics (MPA), New Mexico State University, University of Pittsburgh, Princeton University, the United States Naval Observatory, and the University of Washington. Observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory a joint facility operated by the University of Arizona and the Smithsonian Institution. Funding for the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey has been provided by NSF grants AST-95-09298, AST-0071048, AST-0507428, and AST-0507483 as well as NASA LTSA grant NNG04GC89G., With funding from the Spanish government through the "Severo Ochoa Centre of Excellence" accreditation (CEX2021-001131-S)., Peer reviewed




A radio-jet driven outflow in the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 2110?

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Peralta de Arriba, L.
  • Alonso-Herrero, A.
  • García-Burillo. S.
  • García-Bernete, I.
  • Villar-Martín, M.
  • García-Lorenzo, B.
  • Davies, R.
  • Rosario, D. J.
  • Hönig, S. F.
  • Levenson, N. A.
  • Packham, C.
  • Ramos Almeida, C.
  • Pereira-Santaella, Miguel
  • Audibert, A.
  • Bellocchi, E.
  • Hicks, E. K. S.
  • Labiano, A.
  • Ricci, C.
  • Rigopoulou, D.
25 pages, 22 figures, 3 tables, We present a spatially-resolved study of the ionised gas in the central 2 kpc
of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 2110 and investigate the role of its moderate
luminosity radio jet (kinetic radio power of $P_\mathrm{jet} = 2.3 \times
10^{43}\mathrm{erg\ s^{-1}}$). We use new optical integral-field observations
taken with the MEGARA spectrograph at GTC. We fit the emission lines with a
maximum of two Gaussian components, except at the AGN position where we used
three. Aided by existing stellar kinematics, we use the observed velocity and
velocity dispersion of the emission lines to classify the different kinematic
components. The disc component is characterised by lines with $\sigma \sim
60-200\ \mathrm{km\ s^{-1}}$. The outflow component has typical values of
$\sigma \sim 700\ \mathrm{km\ s^{-1}}$ and is confined to the central 400 pc,
which is coincident with linear part of the radio jet detected in NGC 2110. At
the AGN position, the [O III]$\lambda$5007 line shows high velocity components
reaching at least $1000\ \mathrm{km\ s^{-1}}$. This and the high velocity
dispersions indicate the presence of outflowing gas outside the galaxy plane.
Spatially-resolved diagnostic diagrams reveal mostly LI(N)ER-like excitation in
the outflow and some regions in the disc, which could be due to the presence of
shocks. However, there is also Seyfert-like excitation beyond the bending of
the radio jet, probably tracing the edge of the ionisation cone that intercepts
with the disc of the galaxy. NGC 2110 follows well the observational trends
between the outflow properties and the jet radio power found for a few nearby
Seyfert galaxies. All these pieces of information suggest that part of observed
ionised outflow in NGC 2110 might be driven by the radio jet. However, the
radio jet was bent at radial distances of 200 pc (in projection) from the AGN,
and beyond there, most of the gas in the galaxy disc is rotating., L.P.d.A., A.A.H., S.G.B., and M.V.M. acknowledge financial support from grant PGC2018-094671-B-I00 funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 and by ERDF A way of making Europe. A.A.H. and M.V.M. also acknowledge financial support from grant PID2021-124665NB-I00 funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and the State Agency of Research MCIN/AEI/ 10.13039/501100011033 and ERDF A way of making Europe. S.G.B. acknowledges support from the research project PID2019-106027GAC44 of the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación. I.G.B. and D.R. acknowledge support from STFC through grant ST/S000488/1. B.G.L. acknowledges support from grants PID2019-107010GB-100 and the Severo Ochoa
CEX2019-000920-S. C.R.A. acknowledges the project “Feeding and feedback in active galaxies”, with reference PID2019-106027GB-C42, funded by MICINNAEI/10.13039/501100011033, and the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 860744 (BID4BEST). C.R.A. and A.A. acknowledge the project “Quantifying the impact of quasar feedback on galaxy evolution”, with reference EUR2020-112266, funded by MICINN-AEI/10.13039/501100011033 and the European Union NextGenerationEU/PRTR; the Consejería de Economía, Conocimiento
y Empleo del Gobierno de Canarias and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) under grant “Quasar feedback and molecular gas reservoirs”, with reference ProID2020010105, ACCISI/FEDER, UE. E.B. acknowledges the María Zambrano program of the Spanish Ministerio de Universidades funded by the Next Generation European Union and is also partly supported by grant RTI2018-096188-B-I00 funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033. C.R. acknowledges support from the Fondecyt Iniciacion grant 11190831 and ANID BASAL project FB210003. D.R. acknowledges support from University of Oxford John Fell Fund., Peer reviewed




Testing the evolutionary pathways of galaxies and their supermassive black holes and the impact of feedback from active galactic nuclei via large multiwavelength data sets

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Mountrichas, George
  • Shankar, Francesco
It is still a matter of intense debate how supermassive black holes (SMBHs) grow and the role played by feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the coevolution of SMBHs and galaxies. To test the coevolution proposed by theoretical models, we compile a large AGN sample of 5639 X-ray detected AGN, over a wide redshift range, spanning nearly three orders of magnitude in X-ray luminosity. The AGN have been detected in the COSMOS-Legacy, the Boötes, the XMM-XXL, and the eROSITA Final Equatorial Depth Survey (eFEDS) fields. Using the specific star formation rate estimates, we split the AGN host galaxies into star forming (SF), starburst (SB), and quiescent (Q). Our results show that the AGN accretion is increased in SB systems compared to SF and Q. Our analysis reveals a mild increase of LX with M*. The LX/star formation rate (SFR) ratio has a weak dependence on M* and at fixed M* it is highest in Q systems. The latter trend is mostly driven by the significant drop in SFR in the Q state. The measured strong variations in SFR from the SB/SF to Q mirror those predicted in merger models with AGN feedback. However, the observed mild variations in LX are at variance with the same models. We also study the evolution of SFR for a galaxy control sample and found that it is very similar to that of X-ray AGN. This suggests that either AGN play a minor role in the star formation quenching, or the relative timescales of the two processes are different., GM acknowledges support by the Agencia Estatal de Investigacion, Unidad de Excelencia Maria de Maeztu, ref. MDM-2017-0765. FS acknowledges partial support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 860744., Peer reviewed