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La enseñanza de la Medicina de Urgencias y Emergencias en las facultades de medicina españolas: situación actual, Instruction in emergency medicine at university schools of medicine: the current situation in Spain

  • Coll-Vinent, Blanca
  • Sánchez, Miquel
  • Nogue Bou, Ramon Maria
  • Miró, Òscar
Objetivo: Analizar la enseñanza de las urgencias y emergencias en las distintas facultades de medicina de las universidades españolas. Métodos: Se consultaron los planes de estudio de las facultades de medicina de España para averiguar la existencia o no de una asignatura específica de Medicina de Urgencias y Emergencias (MUE), y en caso afirmativo, analizar distintos ítems relacionados con la misma. La consulta se realizó a través de la página web de cada centro, y los datos dudosos o que faltaban se confirmaron por correo electrónico o teléfono con los responsables de las asignaturas. Resultados: Veintidós de las 28 facultades españolas de medicina tienen en su plan de estudios al menos una asignatura destinada únicamente a la enseñanza de la MUE, que en la mayoría de casos es una asignatura optativa cuatrimestral. El número de créditos ofrecidos es similar al de otras asignaturas de la misma duración, pero tanto el número de créditos como la extensión y contenidos del programa y el sistema de evaluación son muy variables y, en general, no se adaptan a las recomendaciones de la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Urgencias y Emergencias (SEMES). Conclusiones: La enseñanza de la MUE es frecuente en las universidades españolas, aunque en la mayoría de los casos no es obligatoria. Existe una gran heterogeneidad en el sistema de enseñanza de la asignatura entre las distintas facultades. Los programas de grado existentes en general no siguen las recomendaciones de la SEMES., Objective: To analyze instruction given in emergency medicine in the medical school programs at Spanish universities. Methods: The curricula published by Spanish medical schools were consulted to determine whether or not they offered a course on emergency medicine. If one was listed, the content of the syllabus was analyzed. The search was conducted on each university's website. Unclear or missing data were checked by e-mailing or telephoning the instructors. Results: Twenty-two of the 28 medical school programs studied have at least 1 course specifically focusing on emergency medicine, although in most cases the subject is an elective and only lasts 4 months. The number of credits offered is similar to that of other courses lasting the same amount of time. The number of credits and the scope and content of the syllabi vary considerably, as do the methods of assessing student performance. In general, the courses do not follow the recommendations of the Spanish Society of Emergency Medicine (SEMES). Conclusions: Instruction in emergency medicine is commonly offered in Spanish universities, although the courses are usually listed as electives. The approach to instruction varies greatly from university to university. The syllabi of these undergraduate courses generally do not follow SEMES recommendations., A la Generalitat de Catalunya (beca SGR 2009-1385). Al Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Dr. O. Miró, beca intensificación investigadora 2009).
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L'Expropiació forçosa de l'usdefruit d'habitatges buits per a arrendar-los en la Llei 18/2007, del dret a l'habitatges

  • Vaquer Aloy, Antoni
  • Castells Alcubierre, Gerard
Aquest treball té com a objecte l’anàlisi de l’article 42.6 de la Llei 18/2007, de 28 de desembre, del dret a l’habitatge,2 que preveu la mesura extraordinària de l’expropiació temporal de l’usdefruit dels habitatges desocupats permanentment per tal d’arrendar-los a terceres persones. Amb aquesta anàlisi intentarem demostrar la ineficiència de la mesura prevista pel legislador català, la qual difícilment podrà portar-se a terme en la pràctica, cosa que s’intueix a la vista de l’experiència comparada que analitzarem en l’apartat segon, i la qual amb tota probabilitat no resoldrà el problema d’accés a l’habitatge, conclusió que anticipem a la vista dels precedents legislatius espanyols que abordem en l’apartat tercer, tan abundants com en aparença oblidats, en matèria d’arrendament forçós d’habitatges., Aquest treball s’emmarca en el projecte de recerca MEC SEJ2006-14875-C02-01/JURI i en les activitats del grup de recerca consolidat 2005SGR00199.
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Changes in biodiversity composition and soil nutrient content with management in a Pyrenean grassland community

  • Ribas Artola, Àngela
  • Llurba, Rosa
  • Ventura, D.
  • Hodge, Angela
  • Sebastià, Ma. T.
We investigated the influence of livestock type on vegetation and biogeochemical cycling in grasslands with the objective of describing differences between agropastoral systems experiencing different managements from a trophic perspective. We sampled grassland plots in the Pyrenees of which four were grazed by sheep and four by cattle. We defined three patch types, based on the specific and functional plant composition: Legume-dominated (mostly by Lotus corniculatus); Grass-dominated (mainly by either Festuca nigrescens or Nardus stricta); and Forb-diverse (with Myosotis sylvatica and a diversity of other species). We sampled both above- and below-ground to obtain information about vegetation, roots (including mycorrhiza colonization) and soil nutrients. The above- and belowground plant biomass depended upon functional components of the patch and on grazing management. Plant allocation to green and dead matter changed between management types. Further, differences in grassland vegetation composition between cattle- and sheep-grazed areas found in previous studies were also confirmed. Higher P and NO3 concentrations in cattle-grazed areas suggest eutrophication under this management, linked with lower mycorrhizal colonisation. Our results therefore confirm patterns in previous studies and provide a deeper insight into the mechanisms of biotic differentiation and biogeochemical processes associated with differences in grazing management., This work was supported by the CARBOAGROPAS (CGL2006-13555-C03-01/BOS) and the OBAMA (CGL2009-13425-C02-01 /BOS) projects from the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, and Consolider-Ingenio Montes SD2008-00040.
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Diversity-ecosystem function relationship in mixed forage crops

  • Llurba, Rosa
  • Ribas Artola, Àngela
  • Ventura, D.
  • Connolly, John
  • Sebastià, Ma. T.
Monocultures and three species mixtures containing a grass (Festuca arundinacea), a legume (Medicago sativa) and a forb (Cichorium intybus) were sown in order to test the effects of diversity on forage swards. Yield, LAI (Leaf Area Index), leaching and stability indicators were determined as a function of sown species identity and diversity effects. Yield and LAI were higher in mixed swards than in monocultures. A diversity effect was found for both variables, with values in mixtures above that expected from the proportions of the sown species. There was a seasonal substitution of species dominance, thus maintaining overall total yield. As a result, mixtures showed higher stability than monocultures. On the other hand, we found a negative effect of total biomass on leaching, but this trend was not consistent across the 6 studied harvests., We thank Faustina, Teri, Laura, Josep and all the helpful hands that have made that project possible. This research project was supported by the Spanish Ministerio de Medio Ambiente.
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Multi-species mixtures - new perspectives on models and mechanisms

  • Connolly, John
  • Bell, Thomas
  • Brophy, Caroline
  • Carnus, Timothee
  • Finn, John A.
  • Kirwan, Laura
  • Lüscher, Andreas
  • Sebastià, Ma. T.
  • Weigelt, Alexandra
The delivery of essential ecosystem functions (primary productivity, maintenance of soil fertility, resistance to weed invasion etc.) may be compromised by global declines in biodiversity. There is still controversy about the description of, and mechanisms behind, Biodiversity-Ecosystem Function (BEF) relationships. The Diversity-Interactions model quantified BEF relationships in terms of all the pairwise interactions between the species in a community. The model gives the contribution of two species (i and j) to the functional response in a community as _ijPiPj, where _ij reflects the potential of the two species to contribute to the response and its actual contribution depends also on Pi and Pj, the initial relative abundance of the two species in the community. This model and variants fitted well to a wide range of functional responses (biomass production, respiration) from several, but not all, experiments that examined a wide range of organisms (plants, microorganisms) and levels of species richness (1 to 72 species). A modified version introduces a more complex effect of pairwise interaction. The properties of this more flexible model and its implications for BEF relationships are discussed, particularly in the context of grass-clover contributions to sward functions.
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Every tree is a large subtree of a tree that decomposes Kn or Kn,n

  • Lladó, A.
  • López Masip, Susana-Clara
  • Moragas, J.
Let T be a tree with m edges. A well-known conjecture of Ringel states that every tree T with m edges decomposes the complete graph K2m+1. Graham and H¨aggkvist conjectured that T also decomposes the complete bipartite graph Km,m. In this paper, we show that there exists an integer n with n  d3(m 1)/2e and a tree T1 with n edges such that T1 decomposes K2n+1 and contains T. We also show that there exists an integer n0 with n0 2m 1 and a tree T2 with n0 edges such that T2 decomposes Kn0,n0 . In the latter case, we can improve the bound if there exists a prime p such that d3m/2e  p  2m 1., This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Education of Spain under project MTM2005-08990-C02-01 and by the Catalan Research Council under grant 2005SGR00256.
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Wind and snow damage in the Pyrenees pine forests: effect of stand attributes and location

  • Martín Alcón, Santiago
  • González-Olabarria, José Ramón
  • Coll Mir, Lluís
Wind and snow-induced damage have been analyzed at stand level for three pine forests in the Central-Eastern Pyrenees (Pinus nigra Arn. salzmanii, Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus uncinataRam.). Stand-level models have been then developed for the most affected two species, Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus uncinata Ram., to describe damage severity. The models were based on data from national forest inventory plots. They included variables related to the spatial location and structure of the stands, being validated using a sub-set of the database (25% of the plots randomly selected). Mountain pine forests (Pinus uncinata Ram.) were the most heavily affected by wind and snow disturbances. For both mountain and Scots pine species, topographic exposure and the severity of the local storm regime had an important effect on the degree of damage. Stand's resistance to wind and snow was found to be dependent on the combined effect of basal area and mean slenderness of the dominant trees. For a given slenderness ratio, damage increased strongly in lower-density stands, particularly in stands with basal areas below 15 m2/ha. Stand structure was particularly important to define the resistance of Scots pine stands, which presented a higher vulnerability to wind and snow under higher degree of even-agedness. The models presented in this study provide empirically-based information that can be used to implement silvicultural practices to minimize the risk of those forests to suffer wind and snow-related damages
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Variable rate dosing in precision viticulture: Use of electronic devices to improve application efficiency

  • Llorens Calveras, Jordi
  • Gil Moya, Emilio
  • Llop, Jordi
  • Escolà i Agustí, Alexandre
Two different spray application methods were compared in three vine varieties at different crop stages. A conventional spray application with a constant volume rate per unit ground area (1 ha(-1)) was compared with a variable rate application method designed to compensate electronically for measured variations in canopy dimensions. An air-blast sprayer with individual multi-nozzle spouts was fitted with three Ultrasonic sensors and three electro valves on one side, in order to modify the emitted flow rate of the nozzles according to the variability of canopy dimensions in real time. The Purpose of this prototype was to precisely apply the required amount of spray liquid and avoid over dosing. On average, a 58% saving in application volume was achieved with the variable rate method, obtaining similar or even better leaf deposits., This work was funded by the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, and was part of research project AGL2007-66093-C04-02/AGR. We are grateful to Professor Jordi Valero from Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya for his help in the statistical analysis and Xavier Vidal director of the School of Viticulture “Mercè Rosell” at Espiells (Barcelona) for his help during the field experiments.
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