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Carta de Manuel Hidalgo Zuazua a Antonio Tovar Llorente. Madrid, 30 de mayo de 1954

  • Hidalgo Zuazua, Manuel
Texto en dos idioma (ruso y alemán) y fecha en castellano, [ES] Carta de Manuel Hidalgo Zuazua, a Antonio Tovar Llorente informándole que quiere examinar sus conocimientos de ruso y rumano, por eso quiere ir a Salamanca en junio para que le haga un examen.
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Latin American Street Gangs in Catalonia and Their Delinquency

  • Kazyrytski, Leanid
The increased influx of immigrants from the countries of Latin America to the autonomous Spanish community of Catalonia had a considerable impact on its young people. This phenomenon filled city streets with groups of young migrants characterized by specific outfits and manners. Some groups of young migrants adopted the names of notorious criminal gangs from Central and North America and developed collective schemes of deviant behavior. The Catalonian police, together with mass media, view these groups as youth street gangs because they use certain symbols, have an organizational structure and are directly involved in criminal behavior in public places. According to the Catalonian police reports, the activities of Latin American street gangs is a greater danger to public safety than the activities of other deviant street groups. The detention level of Latin American gang members, as well as their delinquent activities, are rather high. The immigrant component of street gangs is emphasized and they begin to be viewed as a type of organized crime. The author analyzes the position of Latin American gangs in Catalonia, the condition of their delinquency and criticizes the simplified approach to researching them. He stresses changes in the ethnic component of Latin American gangs and highlights the selective approach in the work of the law enforcement, which may distort the understanding of the actual picture of delinquency. The article points out that the goals and specific characteristics of delinquency of Latin American gangs in Catalonia do not allow them to be viewed as organized crime
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Leksicheskoe opisanie emocionalno ocenochnykh edinic russkogo jazyka (Descripcion lexica de las unidades valorativas emocionales de la lengua rusa)

  • Zaynuldinov, Andrei
In the present article is investigated the expressive system of lexicographical markers in lexicons and phraseological dictionaries of Russian, is analyzed the pragmatic aspect of evaluation based on presentation of lexical and phraseological units with positive and negative emotional evaluation. This kind of study helps to solve various problems of lexicographical description and create a better system of expressive markers. A new type of classification, resuming the Russian lexicographical tradition, is presented
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ПРОБЛЕМАТИКА ЛЕКСИКОГРАФИЧЕСКОГО ПРЕДСТАВЛЕНИЯ СИНОНИМИИ НА СОВРЕМЕННОМ ЭТАПЕ, PROBLEMS IN PRESENTATION OF SYNONYMY IN LEXICOGRAPHY AT A MODERN STAGE, PROBLEMS IN PRESENTATION OF SYNONYMY IN LEXICOGRAPHY AT A MODERN STAGE

  • Pardayev, Abdunazar
В статье рассматриваются критерии разграничения синонимии и других лексических парадигм, обсуждается проблема лексикографического представления синонимии, а также роль производных слов в выражении синонимических отношений., In this article there is studied the limitation of synonyms and other lexic paradigms, problems of lexicographical explaining of synonymy and the role of formed words and expressions in synonymic relations., In this article there is studied the limitation of synonyms and other lexic paradigms, problems of lexicographical explaining of synonymy and the role of formed words and expressions in synonymic relations.
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СПЕЦИФИКА РУССКИХ ЛИТЕРАТУРНО-ХУДОЖЕСТВЕННЫХ ЖУРНАЛОВ, QUALITIES OF RUSSIAN LITERARY JOURNALS, QUALITIES OF RUSSIAN LITERARY JOURNALS

  • Grushina, Natalia
Настоящая статья посвящена уникальному типу издания, оказавшему огромное влияние на формирование, развитие и мировоззрение российской интеллигенции. С середины 19 века литературно-художественные журналы в России заняли особое место в ряду различных периодических изданий. Так называемые «толстые журналы» в разные периоды российской истории не только влияли на развитие общественно-политической мысли, но и формировали свободолюбивое мировооззрение своего читателя. В статье рассматривается специфика «толстых журналов» как особого типа периодических изданий, повествуется об основных вехах в истории данного типа издания, предлагается новый метод изучения языка литературно-художественных журналов как единого дискурса., This article focuses on the unique type of publication, which had a huge impact on the formation and development of Russian readers. Literary magazines in Russia started to be issued from mid-19th century. Since then they have occupied a special place among the various periodicals. So-called "thick journals" played an important social and cultural role in different periods of Russian and Soviet history. The article deals with the specifics of "thick journals" as a special type of periodicals, tells about the major milestones in the history of this type of publication in Russia. The author proposes a new method of studying a language of Russian literary journals as a discourse., This article focuses on the unique type of publication, which had a huge impact on the formation and development of Russian readers. Literary magazines in Russia started to be issued from mid-19th century. Since then they have occupied a special place among the various periodicals. So-called "thick journals" played an important social and cultural role in different periods of Russian and Soviet history. The article deals with the specifics of "thick journals" as a special type of periodicals, tells about the major milestones in the history of this type of publication in Russia. The author proposes a new method of studying a language of Russian literary journals as a discourse.
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Корпусное исследование квазисинонимичных конструкций возьми и vimp. vs. взял и v3pers, Сorpus analysis of near-synonymous Russian constructions voz’mi i vimp vs. vzjal i v3pers, Сorpus analysis of near-synonymous Russian constructions voz’mi i vimp vs. vzjal i v3pers

  • Добровольский, Дмитрий
  • Пёппель, Людмила
В статье рассматриваются квазисинонимичные конструкции возьми и Vimp vs. взял и V3pers и их варианты. В основе этих конструкций лежит общий паттерн [взять CONJco V], то есть «глагол взять в разных грамматических формах + сочинительный союз + основной глагол в разных грамматических формах». Заполнение слота CONJco допускает лишь три варианта: и, да и да и, в то время как слот V кажется на первый взгляд практически свободным. Задача исследования – выявить семантические предпочтения в выборе глагола, заполняющего свободный слот каждой из сопоставляемых конструкций. В частности, показано, что различие между этими конструкциями связано с семантическим признаком ‘контролируемости действия’., The study analyzes near-synonymous constructions возьми и Vimp vs. взял и V3pers and their variants. They are based on a common pattern [взять CONJco V], i.e “different verb forms of взять + coordinating conjunctions + different forms of the main verb”. The slot CONJco can only be filled by и, да and да и. As for the slot V, at first glance the choice of fillers seems to be free. The aim is to identify some semantic preferences for filling the slot V of each construction. One of them is connected with the distinctive feature ‘control of action’, The study analyzes near-synonymous constructions возьми и Vimp vs. взял и V3pers and their variants. They are based on a common pattern [взять CONJco V], i.e “different verb forms of взять + coordinating conjunctions + different forms of the main verb”. The slot CONJco can only be filled by и, да and да и. As for the slot V, at first glance the choice of fillers seems to be free. The aim is to identify some semantic preferences for filling the slot V of each construction. One of them is connected with the distinctive feature ‘control of action’
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РУССКО-ПОЛЬСКИЕ СЕМАНТИЧЕСКИЕ СБЛИЖЕНИЯ В СФЕРЕ СУБСТАНДАРТНОЙ ФРАЗЕОЛОГИИ, RUSSIAN-POLISH SEMANTIC APPROXIMATIONS IN SUBSTANDARD PHRASEOLOGY, RUSSIAN-POLISH SEMANTIC APPROXIMATIONS IN SUBSTANDARD PHRASEOLOGY

  • КUSAL, KRZYSZTOV
Настоящая статья посвящена анализу межъязыковых параллелей в сфере субстандартной фразеологии на материале современного русского и польского языков. Объектом исследования явились 200 пар русско-польских субстандартных фразеологических единиц (CФЕ) омонимического характера. Несмотря многоаспектное сопоставление лексических и фразеологических составов близкородственных языков, русская и польская фразеология, совпадающая в плане выражения, но семантически неадекватная, остается пока еще недостаточно изученной. Сопоставительное исследование подсистем русского и польского языков способно стать фрагментом общего типологического описания фразеологии славянских языков, воссоздать объективную картину сходств и различий лексики и фразеологии родственных языков, отразить их в лексикографическом зеркале, а также дать им теоретическую интерпретацию. Исследование представляется актуальным и для глоттодидактики – обучения русскому и польскому языку в вузах Польши и России, а его данные могут быть использованы при проведении спецсеминаров и спецкурсов по славянской фразеологии и субстандартной лексике., This article analyzes interlingual parallels in substandard phraseology in modern Russian and Polish. The object of the study is 200 pairs of Russian-Polish substandard phraseological units of homonymous character. Despite multiaspectual comparison of lexical and phraseological compositions of closely related languages, Russian and Polish phraseology with their certain parallels in terms of expression, yet, representing semantic inadequacies, is still not sufficiently investigated. Comparative research of Russian and Polish subsystems may function as a fragment of the general typological descriptions of the phraseology of the Slavic languages and create an objective picture of the similarities and differences in vocabulary and phraseology of related languages. The study may also facilitate linguistic reflections in lexicographical mirror and render detailed theoretical interpretations. The study is relevant for glottodidactical purposes - learning Russian and Polish at universities in Poland and Russia, and its data can be used to conduct special seminars and special courses in Slavic phraseology and vocabulary subsystems., This article analyzes interlingual parallels in substandard phraseology in modern Russian and Polish. The object of the study is 200 pairs of Russian-Polish substandard phraseological units of homonymous character. Despite multiaspectual comparison of lexical and phraseological compositions of closely related languages, Russian and Polish phraseology with their certain parallels in terms of expression, yet, representing semantic inadequacies, is still not sufficiently investigated. Comparative research of Russian and Polish subsystems may function as a fragment of the general typological descriptions of the phraseology of the Slavic languages and create an objective picture of the similarities and differences in vocabulary and phraseology of related languages. The study may also facilitate linguistic reflections in lexicographical mirror and render detailed theoretical interpretations. The study is relevant for glottodidactical purposes - learning Russian and Polish at universities in Poland and Russia, and its data can be used to conduct special seminars and special courses in Slavic phraseology and vocabulary subsystems.
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ИННОВАЦИОННЫЕ ПРОЦЕССЫ В УКРАИНСКОЙ УРБОНОНИМИИ НА ФОНЕ ПОСТТОТАЛИТАРНОЙ ЦЕНТРАЛЬНО-­ВОСТОЧНОЙ ЕВРОПЫ, INNOVATIONS IN UKRAINIAN URBONYMY IN THE CONTEXT OF POSTTOTALITARIAN CENTRAL-EASTERN EUROPE, INNOVATIONS IN UKRAINIAN URBONYMY IN THE CONTEXT OF POSTTOTALITARIAN CENTRAL-EASTERN EUROPE

  • Beley, Oleh
Статья представляет собой исследование в области социолингвистики. На представленном ономастическом материале рассматривается функционирование украинских урбононимов в контексте новейших социальных событий в Украине 2013 – 2014 годов. Длительные массовые протесты («Евромайдан»), аннексия Крыма, военные действия на востоке Украины – все это послужило в качестве новой серии толчков к реактивации 25-­летних трансфомационных процессов в посттоталитарном украинском урбоономастиконе. Статья также констатирует, что в отличие от Центрально-­Европейской урбононимии с украинскими собственными названиями улиц, площадей и т.д. процесс декоммунизации проходит весьма инертно. По этой причине автор предлагает определять на территории Украины пять зон трансформационных процессов новейшей урбононимии: 1) радикальную, 2) умеренно-­радикальную, 3) умеренную (или либеральную), 4) умеренно-консервативную, 5) консервативную. В статьи отмечается также ряд интегральных общеукраинских свойств функционирования современной урбононимии: христианизации (рехрестианизации) и европеизации., The article has socioonomastic character. The article is devoted to the usage of Ukrainian urbonyms in the context of extralinguistic factors, especially those that took place in Ukraine in the period of 2013 – 2014 years. Active protests, also known as Euromaidan, annexation of Crimea, military antiterrorist operation in the Eastern Ukraine highly influenced Ukrainian urbonymicon. The analysis showed that contrary to Central-European tendencies Ukrainian proper names of streets, squares, parks etc undergo the process of decommunization non-simultaniously, with high inertia. The author identifies five zones of urbonym transformation: 1. Radical, 2. Moderately-radical, 3. Moderate (liberal), 4. Moderately-conservative, 5. Conservative. Apart from usual processes of decommunization, there are few general tendencies: Christianization (rechristianization) and Europization., The article has socioonomastic character. The article is devoted to the usage of Ukrainian urbonyms in the context of extralinguistic factors, especially those that took place in Ukraine in the period of 2013 – 2014 years. Active protests, also known as Euromaidan, annexation of Crimea, military antiterrorist operation in the Eastern Ukraine highly influenced Ukrainian urbonymicon. The analysis showed that contrary to Central-European tendencies Ukrainian proper names of streets, squares, parks etc undergo the process of decommunization non-simultaniously, with high inertia. The author identifies five zones of urbonym transformation: 1. Radical, 2. Moderately-radical, 3. Moderate (liberal), 4. Moderately-conservative, 5. Conservative. Apart from usual processes of decommunization, there are few general tendencies: Christianization (rechristianization) and Europization.
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ПОСЛЕДНИЙ ПОКЛОН, THE LAST BOW, THE LAST BOW

  • Gol, Nikolay
Статья посвящена стихотворению Александра Блока, ставшему последним в жизни поэта. Восстанавливая по воспоминаниям и дневниковым записям  (сам А. Блок, А. Бенуа, Корней Чуковский, Вл. Ходасевич и др.) историю создания произведения и литературно-творческую обстановку тех лет, автор статьи доказывает, что послание  «Пушкинскому Дому», написанное после двухлетнего творческого молчания по прямому и недвусмысленному заказу, носит далеко не альбомный характер, а, напротив, глубоко лирично и отражает разочарование поэта в революционных преобразованиях,  от которых ожидалось так много. В анализе стихотворения показано, что его четырехстопные ямбы напрямую восходят в пушкинским «Бесам», а не к пушкинскому же «Пиру Петра Великого», и под «тайной свободой» подразумевается свобода политическая., This article is dedicated to a poem written by Alexander Blok, the last peace created by the poet. In the process of reconstruction of history of this creation and the atmosphere of art and literature of these years through the memoirs and dairy entries (by Blok himself, A. Benua, Kornei Tzukovski, V. Hodasevich and others), the author proves the message to “Pushkinski Dom”, written after two years of silence on clear and unambiguous commission is not merely a pretty piece. Quiet the opposite; it is deeply lyrical and transparent to the poet’s disappointment with the revolutionary transformations that he used to expect so much from. Analyzing the poem proves that its dimeter pentameters rising directly do Pushkin’s “Demons” and not “The Feast of Peter the Great” and by “secret freedom” the poet means political liberty., This article is dedicated to a poem written by Alexander Blok, the last peace created by the poet. In the process of reconstruction of history of this creation and the atmosphere of art and literature of these years through the memoirs and dairy entries (by Blok himself, A. Benua, Kornei Tzukovski, V. Hodasevich and others), the author proves the message to “Pushkinski Dom”, written after two years of silence on clear and unambiguous commission is not merely a pretty piece. Quiet the opposite; it is deeply lyrical and transparent to the poet’s disappointment with the revolutionary transformations that he used to expect so much from. Analyzing the poem proves that its dimeter pentameters rising directly do Pushkin’s “Demons” and not “The Feast of Peter the Great” and by “secret freedom” the poet means political liberty.
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