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Association of objectively measured physical activity with body components in European adolescents

Zaguán. Repositorio Digital de la Universidad de Zaragoza
  • Jiménez-Pavón, D.
  • Fernández-Vázquez, A.
  • Alexy, U.
  • Pedrero, R.
  • Cuenca-García, M.
  • Polito, A.
  • Vanhelst, J.
  • Manios, Y.
  • Kafatos, A.
  • Molnar, D.
  • Sjöström, M.
  • Moreno, L.A.
Background: Physical activity (PA) is suggested to contribute to fat loss not only through increasing energy expenditure “per se” but also increasing muscle mass; therefore, it would be interesting to better understand the specific associations of PA with the different body’s components such as fat mass and muscle mass. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between objectively measured PA and indices of fat mass and muscle components independently of each other giving, at the same time, gender-specific information in a wide cohort of European adolescents.
Methods: A cross-sectional study in a school setting was conducted in 2200 (1016 males) adolescents (14.7 ±1.2 years). Weight, height, skinfold thickness, bioimpedance and PA (accelerometry) were measured. Indices of fat mass (body mass index, % fat mass, sum of skinfolds) and muscular component (assessed as fat-free mass) were calculated. Multiple regression analyses were performed adjusting for several confounders including fat-free mass and fat mass when possible.
Results: Vigorous PA was positively associated with height (p?<?0.05) in males, whilst, vigorous PA, moderate-vigorous PA and average PA were negatively associated with all the indices of fat mass (all p?<?0.01) in both genders, except for average PA in relation with body mass index in females. Regarding muscular components, vigorous PA showed positive associations with fat-free mass and muscle mass (all p?<?0.05) in both genders. Average PA was positively associated with fat-free mass (both p?<?0.05) in males and females.
Conclusion: The present study suggests that PA, especially vigorous PA, is negatively associated with indices of fat mass and positively associated with markers of muscle mass, after adjusting for several confounders (including indices of fat mass and muscle mass when possible). Future studies should focus not only on the classical relationship between PA and fat mass, but also on PA and muscular components, analyzing the independent role of both with the different PA intensities.

Association of body composition indices with insulin resistance in European adolescents: The HELENA study

Zaguán. Repositorio Digital de la Universidad de Zaragoza
  • Sese, M.
  • Moreno, L.A.
  • Censi, L.
  • Bresidenassel, C.
  • González-Gross, M.
  • Sjöström, M.
  • Manios, Y.
  • Dénes, M.
  • Dallongeville, J.
  • Widhalm, K.
  • Gottrand, F.
  • De-Henauw, S.
  • Marcos, A.
  • Castillo-Garzón, M.
  • Jiménez-Pavón, D.
Background: The different body components may contribute to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of fat mass and fat free mass indices with markers of insulin resistance, independently of each other and giving, at the same time, gender-specific information in a wide cohort of European adolescents.
Methods: A cross-sectional study in a school setting was conducted in 925 (430 males) adolescents (14.9 ± 1.2 years). Weight, height, anthropometric, bioimpedance and blood parameters were measured. Indices for fat mass and fat free mass, and homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) were calculated. Multiple regression analyses were performed adjusting for several confounders including fat free mass and fat mass when possible.
Results: Indices of fat mass were positively associated with HOMA (all p < 0.01) after adjusting for all the confounders including fat free mass indices, in both sexes. Fat free mass indices were associated with HOMA, in both males and females, after adjusting for center, pubertal status, socioeconomic status and cardiorespiratory fitness, but the associations disappear when including fat mass indices in the adjustment’s model.
Conclusion: Fat mass indices derived from different methods are positively associated with insulin resistance independently of several confounders including fat free mass indices. In addition, the relationship of fat free mass with insulin resistance is influenced by the amount of fat mass in European adolescents. Nevertheless, future studies should focus not only on the role of fat mass, but also on other body components such as fat free mass because its role could vary depending of the level and distribution of fat mass.

Dietary fat intake modifies the influence of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism on adiposity in adolescents: the HELENA cross-sectional study

Zaguán. Repositorio Digital de la Universidad de Zaragoza
  • Labayen, I.
  • Ruiz, J. R.
  • Huybrechts, I.
  • Ortega, F. B.
  • Arenaza, L.
  • González-Gross, M.
  • Widhalm, K.
  • Molnar, D.
  • Manios, Y.
  • DeHenauw, S.
  • Meirhaeghe, A.
  • Moreno, L. A.
Background and aims The fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) has been associated with obesity and dietary intake. The aims were: (i) To assess whether energy and macronutrient intakes were different across the FTOrs9939609 genotypes in adolescents, and (ii) to explore whether dietary fat intake modified the association of the rs9939609 polymorphism with adiposity. Methods and results The FTOrs9939609 polymorphism was genotyped in 652 adolescents (53% females, 14.8 ± 1.2 years, TT = 246, TA = 296, AA = 110). Energy and macronutrient intake were assessed by two non-consecutive 24 h-recalls. Weight, height, waist circumference and skinfold thicknesses were measured and body fat percent was calculated. Energy and macronutrient intake were similar across the FTOrs9939609 genotypes (P > 0.2). There were significant interactions between the FTO polymorphism and fat intake on adiposity estimates (P < 0.05). In adolescents whose fat intake was below 30% (N = 203), the A allele of rs9939609 was not associated with adiposity indices. In contrast, in adolescents whose fat intake was between 30% and 35% of energy (N = 190), the rs9939609 polymorphism was associated with a 1.9% higher body fat per risk allele (95%CI: 0.39, 3.33; P < 0.05), and in those whose fat intake was higher than 35% (N = 259), it was associated with a 2.8% higher body fat per risk allele (95%CI: 1.27, 4.43; P < 0.001). Conclusions These findings support the concept that the deleterious effect of the FTOrs9939609 polymorphism on adiposity is exacerbated in adolescents consuming high fat diets. In contrast, the consumption of low fat diets (<30% of energy) may attenuate the genetic predisposition to obesity in risk allele carriers.

Antioxidants and oxidative stress in children: Influence of puberty and metabolically unhealthy status

Zaguán. Repositorio Digital de la Universidad de Zaragoza
  • Rupérez, Azahara I.
  • Mesa, María D.
  • Anguita-Ruiz, Augusto
  • González-Gil, Esther M.
  • Vázquez-Cobela, Rocío
  • Moreno, Luis A.
  • Gil, Ángel
  • Gil-Campos, Mercedes
  • Leis, Rosaura
  • Bueno, Gloria
  • Aguilera, Concepción M.
Oxidative stress could help explain the relationship between childhood obesity and a metabolically unhealthy (MU) status. Moreover, puberty could also influence this relationship, since it entails physiological cardiometabolic changes. We aimed to evaluate plasma antioxidants and oxidative stress biomarkers in MU and metabolically healthy (MH) prepubertal and pubertal children and their associations with pro-inflammatory and endothelial damage biomarkers, taking puberty into account. A total of 1444 Spanish children aged 3–17 years (48.9% males, 66% prepubertal, 47.1% with obesity) were recruited. Blood pressure, anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured, and children were categorized as having a MU or MH status according to risk factors. Retinol, carotenes, tocopherols, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), oxidized low-density lipoprotein and selected pro-inflammatory and endothelial damage biomarkers were analyzed. General linear models adjusted for age, sex, recruitment center and body mass index, partial correlations and stepwise linear regressions were performed. Lower carotenes and tocopherols levels were found in MU than in MH children. Plasma TAC was lower in prepubertal and higher in pubertal children with obesity compared to normal-weight children. Antioxidants and oxidative stress biomarkers showed novel associations with several pro-inflammatory and endothelial damage biomarkers, with pubertal differences, supporting the importance of considering both the antioxidant and oxidative stress status and puberty in the prevention of metabolic diseases in childhood.

Self-reported sleeping time effects on physical performance and body composition among Spanish older adults: EXERNET-Elder 3.0 study

Zaguán. Repositorio Digital de la Universidad de Zaragoza
  • Gesteiro, E.
  • Aparicio-Ugarriza, R.
  • García-Centeno, M. C.
  • Escobar-Toledo, D.
  • Mañas, A.
  • Pérez-Gómez, J.
  • Gusi, N.
  • Gómez Cabello, A.
  • Ara, I.
  • Casajús, J. A.
  • Vicente Rodríguez, G.
  • González-Gross, M.
Objective: To determine the link between physical fitness and body composition with nocturnal and nap time in Spanish older adults. Methods: Eight hundred thirty older adults underwent several tests. Sleep was measured using Jenkins Sleep Scale. Nocturnal sleep was categorized (&lt;7, 7–9, and &gt;9 hours), and nap time (no nap, 1–30 minutes, and &gt;30 minutes).Physical fitness was evaluated using validated tests, and body composition by electric bioimpedance. Results: 75.1% of participants were female, mean age 77.7 ± 5.1 years. Mean nocturnal sleep and nap time was 6.7 hours and 23.3 minutes, respectively. Models showed nocturnal sleep &gt;9 hours was significant and positively associated with body shape index (Odds ratio[ OR] = 4.07 ( p = .011)) and waist circumference OR = 1.04 ( p = .024) in females. Males’ waist and hip circumference were positively significantly related to nap time between 1 and 30 minutes, OR = 1.08, p = .009 and OR = 1.08, p = .048, respectively. In females, nap time &gt;30 minutes was associated with greater fat mass and body shape index OR = 1.22, p = .032 and OR = 3.95, p = .027, respectively. Physical fitness showed no associations with sleep outcomes. Conclusions: Sleep patterns do not influence physical fitness but body composition, being more related to female body composition as nocturnal and nap sleep were associated with higher fat mass, waist circumference and body shape index, while only short nap times were related to higher waist and hip circumference in males.

Position guidelines and evidence base concerning determinants of childhood obesity with a European perspective

Zaguán. Repositorio Digital de la Universidad de Zaragoza
  • Martinez, José Alfredo
  • Sassi, Franco
  • Moreno, Luis Alberto
  • Tur, Josep A.
Childhood obesity is one of the most pressing global public health issues, with rates increasing fastest in countries at low levels of income. Obesity occurring during childhood is likely to persist throughout the life course, and it is a cause of increased disease risk from the early years of life. This supplement is the result of collaborations involving a large and multidisciplinary group of researchers that were established in the context of the ongoing European Horizon 2020 project Science and Technology in childhood Obesity Policy (STOP). The aim, as in the entire STOP project, is to generate evidence that can support better policies to tackle the problem of childhood obesity in Europe and elsewhere. Quality of life and health well-being concerning children needs to consider personalized, population, and planetary facets to tackle childhood obesity at early stages of life, for in-deep phenotyping, integrating personalized medicine and precision public health interventions at global levels. This supplement contributes to this aim. © 2021 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity Federation.

Multicomponent training improves the quality of life of older adults at risk of frailty

Zaguán. Repositorio Digital de la Universidad de Zaragoza
  • Moradell, Ana
  • Navarrete-Villanueva, David
  • Fernández-García, Ángel Iván
  • Gusi, Narcis
  • Pérez-Gómez, Jorge
  • González-Gross, Marcela
  • Ara, Ignacio
  • Casajús, José Antonio
  • Gómez-Cabello, Alba
  • Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán
Achieving a high quality of life in older adults can be difficult if they have limited physical function. The aims of this study were to evaluate the relationship between baseline values and variations in body composition, fitness, and nutritional status on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and to describe the effects of a 6-month multicomponent training (MCT) programme and a 4-month detraining period on HRQoL. A total of 106 participants with limited physical function were included in this study (age: 80.8 ± 5.9 years; 74 females) and were divided into two groups: control (CON) and intervention (TRAIN). HRQoL was measured using the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire and a visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS). Information on body composition, physical fitness, Mediterranean diet adherence, and nutritional status were obtained. Healthier baseline values for body composition, fitness and nutritional status were associated with better HRQoL (explaining 23.7–55.4%). The TRAIN group showed increased HRQoL during this 6-month MCT, showing group-by-time interaction (p &lt; 0.05) and a deleterious effect of detraining. Changes in weight, arm strength, and aerobic capacity contributed to explaining 36% of the HRQoL changes obtained with MCT (all p &lt; 0.05). This MCT improved HRQoL in older adults with limited physical function. However, HRQoL returned to baseline values after detraining. This study highlights the importance of performing ongoing programs in this population.

Association between Food-Specific Immunoglobulin G4 Antibodies in Adults with Self-Reported Signs and Symptoms Attributed to Adverse Reactions to Foodstuffs

Zaguán. Repositorio Digital de la Universidad de Zaragoza
  • Pantoja-Arévalo, Lisset
  • Gesteiro, Eva
  • Matthias, Torsten
  • Urrialde, Rafael
  • González-Gross, Marcela
Signs and symptoms attributed to adverse reactions to foodstuffs (ARFS) need tools for research and evaluation in clinical practice. The objectives of this study were (a) to evaluate the most frequent self-reported signs and symptoms attributed to ARFS in Spanish adults, (b) to determine the prevalence of food-specific IgG4 antibody reactions (AbRs), and (c) to investigate the association between self-reported ARFS symptomatology and food-specific IgG4 AbRs. Food-specific IgG4 AbRs against 57 common food and beverages (AESKUCARE-T2FA® in vitro point-of-care test kit, Aesku.Diagnostics GmbH, Germany) were determined in capillary blood samples of 205 volunteers living in the Region of Madrid (Spain). The most frequent self-reported signs and symptoms were related to skin (43%), digestive (41%), and nervous system (NS, 33%) problems. The prevalence of food-specific IgG4 AbRs was cow’s milk (73%), sheep’s milk (70%), casein (66%), and goat’s milk (56.10%). Positive IgG4 AbRs against tomato had a profile consisting of 3/4 of skin problems, more than half of digestive, and 2/5 of NS self-reported signs and symptoms. In conclusion, at least 1/3 of the studied sample reported skin, digestive, and NS signs and symptoms. The most frequent food-specific IgG4 AbRs were related to dairy. Skin problems were more frequent in positive tomato IgG4 AbRs.

A dataset description for the preliminary evaluation of type 2 food allergy correlating symptomatology, body composition, physical activity and antibody titers of food-specific immunoglobulin G subclass 4 in Spanish adults

e-cienciaDatos, Repositorio de Datos del Consorcio Madroño
  • Pantoja-Arévalo, Lisset
  • Gesteiro, Eva
  • Matthias, Torsten
  • Urrialde, Rafael
  • González-Gross, Marcela
<p>3. Description of the project</p>
<p>There is a current growing health public problem of individuals who are not able to tolerate all foods, meaning that they cannot ingest, digest, absorb and metabolise some specific foods or food components without adverse clinical reactions. Some studies have recently reported clinical-related diseases to immunoglobulin G subclass 4 antibodies such as, intestinal permeability (IP), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn's disease (CD); and related-symptoms such as skin and subcutaneous tissue, digestive or gastrointestinal and nervous system related. The aim of this study is to analyse the correlation between symptomatology, body composition, physical activity (PA) and food-specific antibody response in a specific Spanish population with subjective symptoms of general adverse reactions to foodstuffs.</p>

<p>4. Description of the dataset</p>
<p>Spanish sample with subjective signs and symptoms of general adverse reactions to foodstuffs.</p>
<p>Description of variables: </p>
<p>General.- anonymised codes of participant, sex, age and height.</p>
<p>Symptomatology.- skin and subcutaneous tissue, digestive or gastrointestinal and nervous system, number of symptoms. </p>
<p>Body composition.- weight in kg, fat free weight in kg, fat mass percentage, muscular mass in kg, skeletal muscle in kg, protein percentage, bone mass in kg, body water percentage, body mass index in kg/m2, basal metabolic rate (BMR) in Kcal and metabolic age.</p>
<p>Food antigen Aesku.diagnostics point-of-care (POC) panel.- wheat, rye, barley, oat, grain mix A (buckwheat, amaranth and quinoa), grain mix B (corn and rice), gluten, peanut, hazelnut, almond, banana, fruit mix A (lemon and orange), fruit mix B (strawberry, grape and peach), apple, pineapple, kiwi fruit, egg white, egg yolk, casein, cow's milk, goat's milk, sheep's milk, cod, fish mix (salmon and trout), tuna, seafood mix (shrimp, squid and octopus), tomato, legume mix (pea and green bean), vegetable mix A (carrot and celery), vegetable mix B (cabbage and broccoli), tuber mix (garlic, onion and leek), lamb or mutton, meat mix A (pork and beef), meat mix B (chicken and turkey), potato, soy, yeast mix (baker's yeast and brewer's yeast), cocoa, coffee and mustard. All expressed in IgG4 antibody titers (levels 1, 2 and 3).</p>
<p>Physical activity.- Accomplishment of the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommendations, low physical activity, moderate physical activity, high physical activity and sitting time in minutes per week.</p>


<p>1. Methodology</p>

<p>Protocol registered in clinical trial:</p>

Study Protocol of a Population-Based Cohort Investigating Physical Activity, Sedentarism, Lifestyles and Obesity in Spanish Youth: the PASOS Study

RUC. Repositorio da Universidade da Coruña
  • Gómez, Santiago Felipe
  • Homs, Clara
  • Wärnberg, Julia
  • Medrano, María
  • González-Gross, Marcela
  • Gusi, Narcis
  • Aznar, Susana
  • Marín Cascales, Elena
  • González Valeiro, Miguel
  • Serra Majem, Lluis
  • Terrados, Nicolás
  • Tur, Josep A.
  • Segú, Marta
  • Lassale, Camille
  • Benavenet Marín, Juan Carlos
  • Labayen, Idoia
  • García Zapico, Augusto
  • Sánchez Gómez, Jesús
  • Jiménez Zazo, Fabio
  • Alcaraz, Pedro Emilio
  • Sevilla-Sánchez, Marta
  • Herrera Ramos, Estefanía
  • Pulgar, Estefanía
  • Bibiloni, María del Mar
[Abstract] Introduction: Physical activity (PA) is essential to healthy mental and physical development in early life. However, the prevalence of physical inactivity, which is considered a key modifiable driver of childhood obesity, has reached alarming levels among European youth. There is a need to update the data for Spain, in order to establish if current measures are effective or new approaches are needed. Methods and analysis: We present the protocol for Physical Activity, Sedentarism, lifestyles and Obesity in Spanish youth (PASOS). This observational, nationally representative, multicentre study aims to determine the PA levels, sedentary behaviours and prevalence of physical inactivity (defined as <60 min of moderate to vigorous PA per day) in a representative sample of Spanish children and adolescents. The PASOS study has recruited a representative random sample of children and adolescents aged 8–16 years from 242 educational centres in the 17 ‘autonomous regions’ into which Spain is divided. The aim is to include a total of 4508 youth participants and their families. Weight, height and waist circumference will be measured by standardised procedures. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet, quality of life, sleep duration,
PA and sedentary behaviour are being measured by validated questionnaires. PA is measured by the Physical Activity Unit 7-item Screener. A representative subsample (10% of participants) was randomly selected to wear accelerometers for 9 days to obtain objective data on PA. Parents are asked about their educational level, time spent doing PA, diet quality, self-perceived stress, smoking habit, weight, height, their child’s birth weight and if the child was breast fed., PASOS study has been funded mainly by Fundación PROBITAS and Gasol Foundation. Additional funds were received from the Barça Foundation, Banco Santander, IFA, Viena and Fundación Deporte Jóven. MMB is funded by the official funding agency for biomedical research of the Spanish government, Institute of Health Carlos III (ISCIII), which is cofunded by the European Regional Development Fund (CIBEROBN CB12/03/30038), grant of support to research groups number 35/2011 (Balearic Islands Gov) and EU COST Action CA16112. PASOS has the institutional support of Spain’s Ministry of Education and Vocational Training, the Ministry of Health, Consumption and Social Welfare through the Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition (ASEAN), the High Commission against Child Poverty, the High Sports Council, the General College of Professional Associations of Physical Education and Sports, and the Departments of Education and/or Health and/or Sports of Spain’s 17 autonomous regions. The CIBERESP and the CIBEROBN are initiatives of the Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain., Gobierno de las Islas Baleares; 35/2011, European Cooperation in Science and Technology; CA16112