VULNERABILIDAD DE LA BIODIVERSIDAD EN MONTAÑAS DEL SUR DE EUROPA FRENTE AL CAMBIO CLIMATICO

CGL2017-90040-R

Nombre agencia financiadora Agencia Estatal de Investigación
Acrónimo agencia financiadora AEI
Programa Programa Estatal de I+D+i Orientada a los Retos de la Sociedad
Subprograma Programa Estatal de I+D+i Orientada a los Retos de la Sociedad
Convocatoria Retos Investigación: Proyectos I+D+i
Año convocatoria 2017
Unidad de gestión Plan Estatal de Investigación Científica y Técnica y de Innovación 2013-2016
Centro beneficiario AGENCIA ESTATAL CONSEJO SUPERIOR DE INVESTIGACIONES CIENTIFICAS (CSIC)
Identificador persistente http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100011033

Publicaciones

Found(s) 9 result(s)
Found(s) 1 page(s)

Geographic location, local environment, and individual size mediate the effects of climate warming and neighbors on a benefactor plant

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Villellas, Jesús
  • García, María B.
  • Morris, W.F.
Predictions of plant responses to global warming frequently ignore biotic interactions and intraspecific variation across geographical ranges. Benefactor species play an important role in plant communities by protecting other taxa from harsh environments, but the combined effects of warming and beneficiary species on their performance have been largely unexamined. We analyzed the joint effects of elevated temperature and neighbor removal on the benefactor plant Silene acaulis, in factorial experiments near its low- and high-latitude range limits in Europe. We recorded growth, probability of reproduction and fruit set during 3 years. The effects of enhanced temperature were positive near the northern limit and negative in the south for some performance measures. This pattern was stronger in the presence of neighbors, possibly due to differential thermal tolerances between S. acaulis and beneficiary species in each location. Neighbors generally had a negative or null impact on S. acaulis, in agreement with previous reviews of overall effects of plant–plant interactions on benefactors. However, small S. acaulis individuals in the north showed higher growth when surrounded by neighbors. Finally, the local habitat within each location influenced some effects of experimental treatments. Overall, we show that plant responses to rising temperatures may strongly depend on their position within the geographic range, and on species interactions. Our results also highlight the need to consider features of the interacting taxa, such as whether they are benefactor species, as well as local-scale environmental variation, to predict the joint effects of global warming and biotic interactions on species and communities., This project was funded by the Swedish Research Council to W. F. Morris (Ref: 2012-42619-94710-26) and by the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness to M. B. García (CGL2017-90040-R).




Living at the limit in a major biogeographical crossroad. The flora of the Pyrenean Mountains

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Gómez García, Daniel
  • Font, Xavier
  • García González, María Begoña
Mountains shelter high biological diversity and constitute important barriers for species distributions. They often contain sets of species whose populations occur at their range limit (peripheral species), which according to the “Centre-Periphery” hypothesis are expected to perform worse and be more vulnerable than in central positions. Our study investigates this hypothesis by examining the potential vulnerability (abundance and ecological characteristics) of the flora of the Pyrenees, a major biogeographical crossroad containing a large proportion of the total European plant diversity. We also assess the contribution of peripheral plants in lists of conservation. We compared regional area of occupancy, local abundance, elevation, habitat and soil type preferences, of more than 2,600 central, peripheral and endemic native vascular plants of the Pyrenees mountains. Their conservation status was also assessed at different spatial scales. A quarter of Pyrenean species are at their distributional limit. Like endemics, peripherals have lower continental and regional occupancy than central ones, but their local abundance does not differ significantly. Endemics and peripherals are also more likely to be soil specialists at high elevation, mainly in (sub)alpine grasslands and rocky areas. Although occurring in different ecological conditions, peripheral species at their rear-edge (mainly Boreoalpine and Eurosiberian) tend to be more widespread regionally but equally abundant locally than leading- edge species (mainly Mediterranean). Peripheral taxa constitute a large portion of Pyrenean species protected at different geographic or administrative scales (31-56%), of highest importance in the Pyrenean red list. Peripheral species show contrasting ecology at the leading- and rear-edge, contribute substantially to the high plant diversity of the Pyrenean biogeographical crossroad and to the lists of priority species for conservation. Integrative biogeographical assessments of the rarity and ecology of mountain floras provide a better overview than administrative ones to establish priorities for conservation., OPCC-POCTEFA EFA (235/1) and VULBIMON (CGL2017-90040-R)., Peer reviewed




Plant population MONITO dataset. 2010-2019

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • García González, María Begoña
Population sizes, threats, and abundance change through time, for monitored plants in the Aragon Region (Spain) between 2010 and 2019., Regional Government of Aragón, the European Project RESECOM (LIFE+12 NAT/ES/000180), the OAPN (DYNBIO, grant 1656/2015), the Research Spanish Agency (VULBIMON, grant CGL2017-90040-R), and the Diputación Provincial de Huesca (2019), Peer reviewed




Assessing the vulnerability of habitats through plant rarity patterns in the Pyrenean range

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Miranda, Héctor
  • Font, Xavier
  • Roquet, Cristina
  • Pizarro Gavilán, Manuel
  • García González, María Begoña
Biodiversity is being severely affected by global change worldwide, but consequences differ across individual species and environments. Since rarity is a condition associated with vulnerability and extinction risk, it is a concerning factor itself that can also amplify the detrimental impact of global change drivers. Here, we assess differences in vulnerability derived from species rarity across environments in a South European mountain range, the Pyrenees, a complex landscape sheltering more than 3400 vascular plants. We first analyzed patterns of alpha taxonomic (richness) and phylogenetic diversity (standardized phylogenetic diversity, sesPD) from more than 18,000 plant surveys across 14 different habitats to find out which ones shelter the highest diversity. Then, we classified plant species according to four criteria of rarity (Pyrenean endemic, regional geographic range, ecological specialization and local abundance) and estimated their frequency among habitats and their contribution to PD. Generalized linear models were used to compare richness and sesPD among habitats, and the relationship between each diversity metric and rare species proportion was assessed. Grasslands harbor the greatest number of species but are poor in sesPD, while inland surface waters contain fewer species but are the most phylogenetically diverse. Deciduous, evergreen and Mediterranean forests show both high species richness and sesPD. Rare species account for half of the regional species pool, and are more abundant in habitats with fewer species and higher sesPD. Diversity metrics showed opposite tendencies between them and with rare species proportion, emphasizing that they are not interchangeable. Our results highlight the vulnerability of rocky and water-related habitats due to the rarity of the species they shelter, but only the latter match other assessments of habitat vulnerability to global change drivers. The analysis of rarity patterns can guide conservation efforts by identifying priority targets when information about direct threats to habitats is scarce or incomplete., Agencia Estatal de Investigación, Grant/Award Number: CGL2017-90040-R; Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Grant/Award Number: PRE2018-083868; Gobierno de Aragón (CEN, E03_20R).




Filogenia de la flora Pirenaica a nivel de género

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Roquet, Cristina
  • García González, María Begoña
[Description of methods used for collection/generation of data] We built a genus-level phylogeny using the workflow proposed by Roquet et al. (2013). We downloaded from Genbank three conserved chloroplastic regions (rbcL, matK and ndhF) plus the ITS region for a subset of families, which we aligned separately by taxonomic clustering.

[Methods for processing the data] We aligned all coding sequence clusters with MACSE (Ranwez et al. 2011) and non-coding ones with MAFFT (Katoh and Standlye 2013), and trimmed all alignments with TrimAl (Capella-Gutiérrez et al. 2009). We concatenated all alignments to obtain a supermatrix. We then conducted maximum-likelihood (ML) phylogenetic inference analyses with RAxML (Stamatakis 2014), applying the most appropriate partitioning scheme and substitution model obtained with PartitionFinder (Lanfear et al. 2012) and a supertree constraint at the family-level obtained with the online software Phylomatic v.3 (tree R20120829). Specifically, we performed 100 independent tree searches and selected the best ML tree (the one with the highest probability).

[Instrument- or software-specific information needed to interpret/reproduce the data] Any software for manipulation or analysis of phylogenies such as R packages ape or picante.

[Standards and calibration information, if appropriate] The best ML tree was dated applying the penalized likelihood method in treePL (Smith and O'Meara,2012) and the following node calibrations: we fixed the node corresponding to the ancestor of eudicots at 125 Ma based on the earliest eudicot fossil (Hughes and McDougall 1990), and applied minimum age constraints to 15 nodes based on fossil information extracted from Smith and Beaulieu (2010) and Bell et al. (2010).

5. Environmental/experimental conditions:, Agencia Estatal de Investigación, Project VULVIMON (Reference: CGL2017-90040-R)., Peer reviewed




The Pyrenees as a cradle of plant diversity: phylogeny, phylogeography and niche modeling of Saxifraga longifolia

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Pomeda.Gutiérrez, Fernando
  • García González, María Begoña
  • Leo, María
  • Fernández-Mazuecos, Mario
  • Lamrani Alaoui, Mostafa
  • Terrab, Anass
  • Vargas, Pablo
The current distribution of most species results from ecological niche, past distribution, and migrations
during glacial–interglacial periods and in situ evolution. Here, we disentangle the colonization history of Saxifraga longifolia Lapeyr., a limestone plant abundant in the Pyrenees and rare in other Iberian mountains and the African Atlas. Our working hypothesis is that the current distribution results from the shrinkage of a more extensive distribution in previous cold periods. We sampled 160 individuals of 32 populations across the whole distribution range and sequenced four DNA regions (rpl32‐trnL, rps16‐trnQ, trnS‐trnG, and ITS). Ecological conditions were modeled to identify factors promoting high genetic diversity and long‐term persistence areas for S. longifolia. In addition, we inferred phylogenetic relationships, phylogeographic divergence, genetic diversity, and migration routes. Seven plastid haplotypes were found, of which six occur in the Pyrenees and one in the High Atlas (Morocco). Discrete phylogeographic analysis (DPA) estimated migration routes predominantly from the Pyrenees to the other areas. Colonization events to those areas appear to have taken place recently given that the rest of the Iberian mountains do not harbor exclusive haplotypes. Iberian–Northern African distribution was inferred to be the result of long‐distance dispersal because the split between Iberian and High Atlas haplotypes is estimated to have taken place in the last 4 million years ago when the Strait of Gibraltar was already open. Migrations from the Pyrenees to the south may have been favored by a corridor of predominant limestone rocks along Eastern Iberia, followed by successful overcoming the Strait of Gibraltar to reach northern Africa., This research was partially financed by the “Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (Spain),” project VULBIMON (CGL2017‐90040‐R). FP‐G. was supported by the Youth Employment Initiative (European Social Fund and Community of Madrid; reference PEJ‐2018‐AI/ AMB‐10790)., Peer reviewed




Thermal unmanned aerial vehicles for the identification of microclimatic refugia in topographically complex areas

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Hoffrén, Raúl
  • García González, María Begoña
Biodiversity loss is one of the most relevant consequences of climate change. Therefore, identifying areas and environmental features that allow certain organisms to be less exposed to the effects of the current global warming is priority for biodiversity conservation. In this study, we describe a novel approach for the identification of microclimatic refugia in rugged mountain areas, specifically for the detection of most thermally stable areas, using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) capable of recording in the visible and thermal infrared spectral bands. We estimated land surface temperatures (LST) at very-high spatial resolution in six topographically complex sectors of the Pyrenees (NE Spain), across seasons with vegetative activity (summer 2020, autumn 2020, spring 2021, and summer 2021), and at two thermally contrasted times of the day (early in the morning: LSTmin, and in the afternoon: LSTmax). LST were validated with a network of miniaturized temperature sensors in the field. LSTmin and LSTmax allowed us to calculate the daily thermal range of each sector across the seasons, and thus the most thermally stable areas over the year. To reveal the importance of different variables on low and narrow thermal ranges we applied Gradient Boosted Models to seven terrain variables derived from ALS-LiDAR (slope, northness, eastness, heat load, wind exposure index, SAGA's topographic wetness index, and vector ruggedness measure) and a proxy of forest density through the three-dimensional point clouds of the UAV data. The northness was the variable that most promoted thermal stability, followed by the slope and forest density, so that microclimatic refugia resulted to be located in northern slopes, small sites under rocky cliffs, and forested areas. Our results demonstrate that thermal UAVs can become promising tools for the identification of microclimatic refugia in topographically complex areas, providing information at unprecedented spatial resolution, and thus of high interest for biodiversity conservation., This work was supported by the Spanish Association of Terrestrial Ecology (AEET) through the program “Grants for research projects led by young researchers 2019”; the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation, and Universities through an FPU predoctoral contract granted to R.H. (FPU18/05027); and the Spanish Research Agency through the VULBIMON (CGL2017-90040-R) and REFUGIA (PID2021-129056OB-I00) projects to M.B.G., Peer reviewed




Rocky habitats as microclimatic refuges for biodiversity. A close-up thermal approach

Zaguán. Repositorio Digital de la Universidad de Zaragoza
  • García, María B.
  • Domingo, Darío
  • Pizarro, Manuel
  • Font, Xavier
  • Gómez, Daniel
  • Ehrlén, Johan
In the present scenario of climatic change, climatic refugia will be of paramount importance for species per- sistence. Topography can generate a considerable climatic heterogeneity over short distances, which is often disregarded in macroclimatic predictive models. Here we investigate the role of rocky habitats as microclimatic refugia by combining two different analyses: exploring a thermal mechanism whereby rocky habitats might serve as refugia, and examining if the biogeographic pattern shows a high abundance of relict, endemic and peripheral species.
The thermal profile of two populations of relict and endemic plant species occurring in Pyrenean cliffs was investigated by infrared images and in situ temperature data-loggers. Despite occurring in crevices of a south oriented slope, Androsace cylindrica showed a narrower daily range of temperature than the surrounding matrix, thereby avoiding extreme high temperatures. Borderea chouardii, of tropical ancestors, also occurred in patches where temperatures were buffered during the growth season, experiencing lower mean temperatures than the surrounding matrix and nearby areas during the warmer part of the day, and similar temperatures during the colder. The rocky habitats of both species, therefore, reduced temperature ranges and exposition to extreme climatic events. Compared to other habitats, the rocky ones also harboured a very high fraction of both endemics and peripheral plant populations according to the largest vegetation dataset available in the Pyrenees (18,800 plant inventories and 400,000 records). Our results suggest an association between the habitats of relicts, en- demics and species at their distribution limit, driven by a stabilizing effect of rocky habitats on extreme tem- peratures. Given the important role of rocky habitats as hotspots of singular and unique plants, their char- acterization seems a sensible first step to identify potential refugia in the context of climate change.




Thermal unmanned aerial vehicles for the identification of microclimatic refugia in topographically complex areas

Zaguán. Repositorio Digital de la Universidad de Zaragoza
  • Hoffrén, Raúl
  • García, María B.
Biodiversity loss is one of the most relevant consequences of climate change. Therefore, identifying areas and environmental features that allow certain organisms to be less exposed to the effects of the current global warming is priority for biodiversity conservation. In this study, we describe a novel approach for the identification of microclimatic refugia in rugged mountain areas, specifically for the detection of most thermally stable areas, using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) capable of recording in the visible and thermal infrared spectral bands. We estimated land surface temperatures (LST) at very-high spatial resolution in six topographically complex sectors of the Pyrenees (NE Spain), across seasons with vegetative activity (summer 2020, autumn 2020, spring 2021, and summer 2021), and at two thermally contrasted times of the day (early in the morning: LSTmin, and in the afternoon: LSTmax). LST were validated with a network of miniaturized temperature sensors in the field. LSTmin and LSTmax allowed us to calculate the daily thermal range of each sector across the seasons, and thus the most thermally stable areas over the year. To reveal the importance of different variables on low and narrow thermal ranges we applied Gradient Boosted Models to seven terrain variables derived from ALS-LiDAR (slope, northness, eastness, heat load, wind exposure index, SAGA's topographic wetness index, and vector ruggedness measure) and a proxy of forest density through the three-dimensional point clouds of the UAV data. The northness was the variable that most promoted thermal stability, followed by the slope and forest density, so that microclimatic refugia resulted to be located in northern slopes, small sites under rocky cliffs, and forested areas. Our results demonstrate that thermal UAVs can become promising tools for the identification of microclimatic refugia in topographically complex areas, providing information at unprecedented spatial resolution, and thus of high interest for biodiversity conservation.