GEODINAMICA DE LA OROGENIA ALPINA MEDITERRANEA CENTRAL: CARACTERIZACION DEL MANTO Y MOVIMIENTOS VERTICALES

PGC2018-095154-B-I00

Nombre agencia financiadora Agencia Estatal de Investigación
Acrónimo agencia financiadora AEI
Programa Programa Estatal de Generación de Conocimiento y Fortalecimiento Científico y Tecnológico del Sistema de I+D+i
Subprograma Subprograma Estatal de Generación de Conocimiento
Convocatoria Proyectos de I+D de Generación de Conocimiento
Año convocatoria 2018
Unidad de gestión Plan Estatal de Investigación Científica y Técnica y de Innovación 2017-2020
Centro beneficiario AGENCIA ESTATAL CONSEJO SUPERIOR DE INVESTIGACIONES CIENTIFICAS (CSIC)
Identificador persistente http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100011033

Publicaciones

Found(s) 16 result(s)
Found(s) 2 page(s)

Towards a Digital Twin of the Earth System: Geo-Soft-CoRe, a Geoscientific Software & Code Repository

RUC. Repositorio da Universidade da Coruña
  • DeFelipe, Irene
  • Alcalde, Juan
  • Baykiev, Eldar
  • Bernal, Isabel
  • Boonma, Kittiphon
  • Carbonell, Ramón
  • Flude, Stephanie
  • Folch, Arnau
  • Fullea, Javier
  • García-Castellanos, Daniel
  • Geyer, Adelina
  • Giralt, Santiago
  • Hernández, Armand
  • Jiménez-Munt, Ivone
  • Kumar, Ajay
  • Llorens, María-Gema
  • Martí, Joan
  • Molina, Cecilia
  • Olivar-Castaño, Andrés
  • Parnell, Andrew
  • Schimmel, Martin
  • Torné, Montserrat
  • Ventosa, Sergi
[Abstract] The immense advances in computer power achieved in the last decades have had a significant impact in Earth science, providing valuable research outputs that allow the simulation of complex natural processes and systems, and generating improved forecasts. The development and implementation of innovative geoscientific software is currently evolving towards a sustainable and efficient development by integrating models of different aspects of the Earth system. This will set the foundation for a future digital twin of the Earth. The codification and update of this software require great effort from research groups and therefore, it needs to be preserved for its reuse by future generations of geoscientists. Here, we report on Geo-Soft-CoRe, a Geoscientific Software & Code Repository, hosted at the archive DIGITAL.CSIC. This is an open source, multidisciplinary and multiscale collection of software and code developed to analyze different aspects of the Earth system, encompassing tools to: 1) analyze climate variability; 2) assess hazards, and 3) characterize the structure and dynamics of the solid Earth. Due to the broad range of applications of these software packages, this collection is useful not only for basic research in Earth science, but also for applied research and educational purposes, reducing the gap between the geosciences and the society. By providing each software and code with a permanent identifier (DOI), we ensure its self-sustainability and accomplish the FAIR (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable) principles. Therefore, we aim for a more transparent science, transferring knowledge in an easier way to the geoscience community, and encouraging an integrated use of computational infrastructure., This research has been funded by the Projects EPOS IP 676564, EPOS SP 871121, SERA 730900, GeoCAM (PGC2018-095154-B-I00, Spanish Government) and the Center of Excellence for Exascale in Solid Earth (ChEESE) under the Grant Agreement 823844. IDF was funded by a FEDER-Junta de Castilla y León Postdoctoral contract (SA0084P20). JA and M-GL are funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation through the Juan de la Cierva fellowship (IJC 2018-036074-I and IJC 2018-036826-I, respectively), funded by MCIN/AEI /10.13039/501100011033. AH is grateful for his Ramón y Cajal contract (RYC 2020-029253-I). Additional funding was provided by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (RTI 2018-095594-B-I00, PGC 2018-095154-B-100) and the Generalitat de Catalunya (AGAUR, 2017SGR1022). AP’s work was supported by: a Science Foundation Ireland Career Development Award (17/CDA/4695); an investigator award (16/IA/4520); a Marine Research Programme funded by the Irish Government, co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund (Grant-Aid Agreement No. PBA/CC/18/01); European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme InnoVar under grant agreement No 818144; SFI Centre for Research Training in Foundations of Data Science 18/CRT/6049, and SFI Research Centre awards I-Form 16/RC/3872 and Insight 12/RC/2289_P2. AH and SG thank the Spanish research project PaleoModes (CGL2016-75281-C2-1-R) which provided some of their financial support. JF is supported by an Atracción de Talento senior fellowship (2018-T1/AMB/11493) funded by Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain), and a project funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (PID2020-114854GB-C22), Junta de Castilla y León; SA0084P20, Generalitat de Catalunya; 2017SGR1022, Science Foundation Ireland; 17/CDA/4695, Science Foundation Ireland; 16/IA/4520, Ireland. Marine Institute; PBA/CC/18/01, Science Foundation Ireland; 18/CRT/6049, Science Foundation Ireland; 16/RC/3872, Science Foundation Ireland; 12/RC/2289_P2, Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid; 2018-T1/AMB/11493




Lithospheric Structure across the Northern Apennines, Dinarides and Pannonian basin, based on Integrated Geophysical-petrological Modeling

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Zhang, Wentao
  • Jimenez-Munt, Ivone
  • Torné, Montserrat
  • Negredo, Ana M.
  • Vergés, Jaume
  • García-Castellanos, Daniel
AGU Fall Meeting 2020 ,online 1-17 December 2020, The present-day lithospheric structure of the Central Mediterranean Orogenic system is largely the result of tectonic and geodynamic processes related to the full subduction of the Tethyan oceanic domains. During the last decades, this region has been the target of numerous geological and geophysical studies to unravel the crustal and lithospheric structure. However, the contribution of the chemical composition and phase transitions on the physical properties in the lithospheric mantle are usually not considered. We aim at constraining and characterizing the present-day lithosphere and mantle structure along a geo-transect crossing the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea, the Northern Apennines, the Adriatic Sea, the Dinarides fold belt and the Pannonian back-arc basin by applying the integrated petrological-geophysical modelling tool, LitMod2D_2.0. Key properties of rocks (i.e., density, thermal conductivity and seismic velocities) and their spatial distribution are inferred from geophysical data (gravity, seismic, elevation, and heat flow) consistently with the thermochemical conditions and with the isostatic equilibrium along the section. Our results imply prominently lateral variations in the present-day lithospheric structure along the modeled geo-transect, affecting crustal and lithospheric mantle thickness, temperature, density distribution, and mantle composition that reveals the imprint of the complex geodynamic evolution of the area., This is a GeoCAM contribution (PGC2018-095154-B-I00)




Thermo-mechanical modelling of subducting plate delamination in the northern Apennines

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Negredo, Ana M.
  • Clemente, Carlos
  • Carminati, Eugenio
  • Jimenez-Munt, Ivone
  • Vergés, Jaume
  • Fullea, J.
  • Torné, Montserrat
EGU General Assembly 2021, Online, 19–30 April 2021, A number or previous studies indicate the possibility of post-collisional continental delamination
in the northern Apennines. In this study we investigate by means of thermo-mechanical modelling
the conditions for, and consequences of, delamination postdating continental subduction in this
region. The modelled cross-section strikes approximately from Corsica to the Adriatic Sea. The
initial model setup simulates the scenario at ca 20 Ma, where the oceanic lithosphere of the
westward-subducting Adria plate was entirely consumed and some amount of continental
subduction also occurred. The negative buoyancy of the slab remnant, together with the low
viscosity of the dragged down lower continental crust, promote lithospheric mantle sinking into
the mantle and asthenospheric upwelling and its lateral expansion along the lower crust.
Consistent with geological data, the compressional front produced by delamination migrates
about 260 km eastwards, causing a similar migrating pattern of extension from the northern
Tyrrhenian Sea, to Tuscany and the seismogenically active Apennines backbone. The topographic
response is computed by means of a true free-surface approach, and reflects the same eastward
migrating pattern of uplift caused by asthenospheric inflow in the internal part of the system and
crustal thickening; and subsidence at the front caused by the negative buoyancy of the sinking
Adria slab. The conditions for the occurrence of magmatism and high heat flow beneath Tuscany
are also explored. Simulations resulting in fast migration of the delamination front predict slab
necking and breakoff, which could be consistent with the slab window observed beneath the
central Apennines. Subcrustal seismicity beneath the Northern Apennines can be interpreted as
the result to this incipient slab necking., This is a GeoCAM contribution (PGC2018-095154-B-I00)




The topography of the Iberian Peninsula from integrated geophysical-petrological multi-data inversion

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Fullea, J.
  • Negredo, Ana M.
  • Charco, María
  • Palomeras, Imma
  • Afonso, Juan Carlos
  • Villaseñor, Antonio
Special issue Physical properties and observations of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system.-- 21 pages, 15 figures, 3 tables, 1 appendix, The topography of the Iberian Peninsula is characterized by the presence of Variscan and Alpine orogenic belts and foreland basins, but what sets it apart from the rest of Western Europe are the large elevated flat surfaces (700 m above sea-level on average) in its central parts. The origin and support of such high average topography, whether isostatic or dynamic in nature, is a matter of intense debate. To understand Iberian topography, it is key to have a reliable image of the present-day lithospheric thermochemical structure. So far, this structure remains poorly constrained, particularly at mantle level. The goal of this paper is to derive robust estimates of the thermal, compositional and density structure of the lithosphere beneath the Iberian Peninsula from an integrated geophysical-petrological probabilistic inversion of surface wave, elevation, geoid anomaly and heat flow data. Our inversion reveals an average lithospheric thickness of 80–100 km in the Iberian Peninsula with only moderate lateral variations. The most prominent lithospheric thickness change is a steep decrease from the central to the easternmost Pyrenees. The thinnest lithosphere in our models is found below the south-eastern Mediterranean margin (<80 km), overlapping with the Neogene Tallante-Cabo de Gata volcanic fields. The present-day thermochemical structure reveals a clear imprint of the geodynamic evolution of Iberia. Lithospheric thickness and, therefore, lithospheric geotherms are to a large extent related to Alpine Cenozoic compression and extension. The western Pyrenees and Iberian chains seem to have been affected by Mesozoic rifting processes that imprinted a fertile signature into the originally more refractory Variscan Iberian lithosphere. In the Betic domain to the south, the lithospheric thermochemical structure is likely conditioned by the ongoing Alboran subduction. Except for the Mediterranean margin, where we find evidence for moderate negative dynamic topography, most of the surface elevation in Iberia can be explained by lateral density contrasts associated with variations in crustal and lithospheric thickness and lithology, This project has been funded by Spanish Ministry of Science projects CGL2012-37222 (J. Fullea) and PGC2018-095154-B-I00 (A.M Negredo). J. Fullea is supported by an Atracción Talento senior fellowship (2018-T1/AMB/11493) funded by Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). I. Palomeras is funded by the Beatriz Galindo fellowship (BEAGAL18/00090) co-founded by the Spanish Ministry of Education and University of Salamanca (Spain). ICM-CSIC is a Centre of Excellence Severo Ochoa (Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, Project CEX2019-000928-S, Peer reviewed




Opposite Symmetry in the Lithospheric Structure of the Alboran and Algerian Basins and Their Margins (Western Mediterranean): Geodynamic Implications

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Kumar, Ajay
  • Fernandez, Manel
  • Vergés, Jaume
  • Torné, Montserrat
  • Jimenez-Munt, Ivone
The geodynamic evolution of the Western Mediterranean for the past 35 My is a matter of debate. Present-day structure and composition of the lithosphere and sublithospheric mantle may help in constraining the geodynamic evolution of the region. We use an integrated geophysical-petrological modeling to derive and compare the present-day thermal, density and compositional structure of the lithosphere and sublithospheric mantle along two NNW-SSE oriented transects crossing the back-arc Alboran and Algerian basins, from onshore Iberia to the northern Africa margin. The crust is constrained using available seismic data and geological cross-sections, whereas seismic tomography and mantle xenoliths constrain the upper mantle structure and composition. Results show a thick crust (37 and 30 km) and a relative deep LAB (130 and 150 km) underneath the HP/LT metamorphic units of the Internal Betics and Greater Kabylies, respectively, which contrast with the 16 km thick magmatic crust of the Alboran Basin and the 10 km thick oceanic crust of the Algerian Basin. The sharp change in lithosphere thickness, from the orogenic wedge to the back-arc basins, contrasts with the gentler lithosphere thickening toward the respective opposed margins. Our results confirm the presence of detached slabs ∼400 °C colder than upper mantle and a fertile composition than the continental lithospheric mantle beneath the External Betics and Saharan Atlas. Presence of detached quasi-vertical sublithospheric slabs dipping toward the SSE in the Betics and toward the NNW in the Kabylies and the opposed symmetric lithospheric structure support an opposite dipping subduction and retreat of two adjacent segments of the Jurassic Ligurian-Tethys realm., This work is funded by the EU Marie Curie Initial Training Network “SUBITOP” (674899-SUBITOP-H2020-MSCA-ITN-2015) and partly by SUBTETIS (PIE-CSIC-201830E039, CSIC), ALORBE (PIE-CSIC-202030E310), GeoCAM (PGC2018-095154-B-I00, Spanish Government), Equinor R&T Fornebu (Norway), and the Generalitat de Catalunya grant (AGAUR 2017 SGR 847). This work has been done using the facilities of the Laboratory of Geodynamic Modeling from Geo3BCN-CSIC., Peer reviewed




Continental delamination in the northern Apennines: insights from thermo-mechanical modelling.

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Negredo, Ana M.
  • Clemente, Carlos
  • Carminati, Eugenio
  • Jimenez-Munt, Ivone
  • Zhang, Wentao
  • Bravo-Gutiérrez, Estefanía
  • Vergés, Jaume
  • Fullea, J.
  • Torné, Montserrat
GeoMod 2021 conference , September 19-23, Utrecht, The Netherlands, The possibility of post-collisional continental delamination in the northern Apennines has been suggested by an
increasing number of studies. We evaluate quantitatively this hypothesis by means of thermo-mechanical modelling.
We use the Finite Element open source code ASPECT 2.2.0 (Bangerth et al., 2020) published under the GPL2, to solve
the coupled equations of conservation of mass, momentum and energy for a 2D vertical section of an incompressible
fluid. We adopt a visco-plastic rheology with a composite viscosity given by a combination of diffusion and creep
dislocation viscous flow laws. The incorporation of a free surface along the top boundary allows us for properly
modelling the topographic response.
The modelled cross-section strikes approximately from Corsica to the Adriatic Sea (solid blue line in Figure 1). The initial
model setup simulates the scenario at ca 25 Ma, and it is characterised by compressional front being located in Corsica
and the presence of some amount of continental subduction. The negative buoyancy of the slab remnant, together with
the low viscosity of the dragged-down lower continental crust, promote lithospheric mantle sinking into the mantle. In
turn, the low viscosity of the dragged-down lower continental crust enables asthenospheric upwelling and its lateral
expansion along the lower crust., This is a GeoCAM contribution (PGC2018-095154-B-I00)




Integrated geophysical-petrological modeling of the lithospheric mantle along the northern Apennines, Dinarides and Pannonian Basin

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Zhang, Wentao
  • Torné, Montserrat
  • Jimenez-Munt, Ivone
  • Negredo, Ana M.
  • Bravo-Gutiérrez, Estefanía
  • Vergés, Jaume
  • García-Castellanos, Daniel
GeoMod 2021 conference , September 19-23, Utrecht, The Netherlands, The target area of this work is located at the junction between the Central Mediterranean Sea and the Alpine-
Carpathian orogenic belt (Fig. 1). The present-day crust and upper mantle structure of this area results from a
complex tectonic scenario mainly driven by subduction of Tethyan oceanic domains, which results in orogenic
belts (Apennines, Dinarides, and Carpathians) separated by extensional back-arc basins (Tyrrhenian and
Pannonian) and the Adriatic microplate. During the last decades, this area has been surveyed by several
geological and geophysical studies. However, the majority of them ignore the role of the petrophysical
features, including chemical composition and phase transitions, on the physical properties in the lithospheric
mantle. Here, we aim to derive the present-day crust and upper mantle structure (up to 400 km depth) along
an about 1070 km long geo-transect, crossing the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea, the Northern Apennines, the
Adriatic Sea, the Dinarides fold belt, and the Pannonian back-arc basin (Fig. 1)., This research has been funded by the GeoCAM Project (PGC2018-095154-B-I00) with the contribution of the China Scholarship Council.




Numerical_Model_WM_Peral_et_al_2022

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Peral, M.
  • Fernandez, Manel
  • Vergés, Jaume
  • Zlotnik, Sergio
  • Jimenez-Munt, Ivone
The geodynamic evolution of the Western Mediterranean related to the closure of the Ligurian-Tethys ocean is not yet fully resolved. We present a new 3D numerical model of double subduction with opposite polarities fostered by the inherited segmentation of the Ligurian-Tethys margins and rifting system between Iberia and NW Africa. The model is constrained by plate kinematic reconstructions and assumes that both Alboran-Tethys and Algerian-Tethys plate segments are separated by a NW-SE transform zone enabling that subduction polarity changes from SE-dipping in the Alboran-Tethys segment to NW-dipping in the Algerian-Tethys segment. The model starts about late Eocene times at 36.5 Ma and the temporal evolution of the simulation is tied to the geological evolution by comparing the rates of convergence and trench retreat, and the onset and end of opening in the Alboran Basin. Curvature of the Alboran- Tethys slab is imposed by the pinning of its western edge when reaching the end of the transform zone in the adjacent west-Africa continental block. The progressive curvature of the trench explains the observed regional stress reorientation changing from N-S to NW-SE and to E-W in the central and western regions of the Alboran Basin. The increase of the retreat rates from the Alboran- Tethys to the Algerian-Tethys slabs is compatible with the west-to-east transition from continental-to-magmatic-to-oceanic crustal nature and with the massive and partially synchronous calc-alkaline and alkaline magmatism. Alkaline magmatism is related to the induced sublithospheric mantle flow by the double subduction system depicting a NE-SW upwelling trend., This work is funded by the SUBTETIS (PIE-CSIC-201830E039, CSIC), ALORBE (PIE- CSIC-202030E310), GeoCAM (PGC2018-095154-B-I00, Spanish Government), Equinor R&T Fornebu (Norway), and the Generalitat de Catalunya grant (AGAUR 2017 SGR 847). We also thank the computer resources at MareNostrum and the technical support provided by the Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC) through several projects (AECT-2019-1-0013 and AECT-2019-2-0005). S. Z. has been funded by the Spanish Ministry through Grant DPI2017-85139-C2-2-R, by the Catalan Government through Grant 2017-SGR-1278, and by the EU's Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie Grant Agreement 777778. This work has been done in the framework of the Unidad Asociada of LACAN-UPC with CSIC and using the facilities of the Laboratory of Geodynamic Modeling from Geo3BCN-CSIC., Numerical experiments are named M1 and M2. M1: Alboran-Algerian system; M2: Alboran system, according to Figure S2 in Peral et al., 2022. Increasing numbers indicate different timesteps of each experiment., Peer reviewed




Numerical modelling of opposing subduction in the Western Mediterranean

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Peral, M.
  • Fernandez, Manel
  • Vergés, Jaume
  • Zlotnik, Sergio
  • Jimenez-Munt, Ivone
The geodynamic evolution of the Western Mediterranean related to the closure of the Ligurian-Tethys ocean is not yet fully resolved. We present a new 3D numerical model of double subduction with opposite polarities fostered by the inherited segmentation of the Ligurian-Tethys margins and rifting system between Iberia and NW Africa. The model is constrained by plate kinematic reconstructions and assumes that both Alboran-Tethys and Algerian-Tethys plate segments are separated by a NW-SE transform zone enabling that subduction polarity changes from SE-dipping in the Alboran-Tethys segment to NW-dipping in the Algerian-Tethys segment. The model starts about late Eocene times at 36.5 Ma and the temporal evolution of the simulation is tied to the geological evolution by comparing the rates of convergence and trench retreat, and the onset and end of opening in the Alboran Basin. Curvature of the Alboran-Tethys slab is imposed by the pinning of its western edge when reaching the end of the transform zone in the adjacent west-Africa continental block. The progressive curvature of the trench explains the observed regional stress reorientation changing from N-S to NW-SE and to E-W in the central and western regions of the Alboran Basin. The increase of the retreat rates from the Alboran-Tethys to the Algerian-Tethys slabs is compatible with the west-to-east transition from continental-to-magmatic-to-oceanic crustal nature and with the massive and partially synchronous calc-alkaline and alkaline magmatism., This work is funded by the SUBTETIS (PIE-CSIC-201830E039, CSIC), ALORBE (PIE-CSIC-202030E310), GeoCAM (PGC2018-095154-B-I00, Spanish Government), Equinor R&T Fornebu (Norway), and the Generalitat de Catalunya grant (AGAUR 2017 SGR 847). We also thank the computer resources at MareNostrum and the technical support provided by the Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC) through several projects (AECT-2019-1-0013 and AECT-2019-2-0005). S. Z. has been funded by the MCIN/AEI doi:10.13039/501100011033 through project PID2020-113463RB-C32, and by EU H2020 MSCA grant agreement No 777778. This work has been done in the framework of the Unidad Asociada of LACAN-UPC with CSIC and using the facilities of the Laboratory of Geodynamic Modelling from Geo3BCN-CSIC., Peer reviewed




Towards a Digital Twin of the Earth System: Geo-Soft-CoRe, a Geoscientific Software & Code Repository

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • DeFelipe, Irene
  • Alcalde, Juan
  • Baykiev, Eldar
  • Bernal, Isabel
  • Boonma, Kittiphon
  • Carbonell, Ramón
  • Flude, Stefanie
  • Folch, Arnau
  • Fullea, J.
  • García-Castellanos, Daniel
  • Geyer, Adelina
  • Giralt, Santiago
  • Hernández, Armand
  • Jimenez-Munt, Ivone
  • Kumar, Ajay
  • Llorens, Maria-Gema
  • Martí Molist, Joan
  • Molina Fernández, Cecilia
  • Olivar-Castaño, Andrés
  • Parnell, Andrew
  • Schimmel, Martin
  • Torné, Montserrat
  • Ventosa, Sergio
Systematic Review Registration: https://digital.csic.es/handle/10261/193580, The immense advances in computer power achieved in the last decades have had a significant impact in Earth science, providing valuable research outputs that allow the simulation of complex natural processes and systems, and generating improved forecasts. The development and implementation of innovative geoscientific software is currently evolving towards a sustainable and efficient development by integrating models of different aspects of the Earth system. This will set the foundation for a future digital twin of the Earth. The codification and update of this software require great effort from research groups and therefore, it needs to be preserved for its reuse by future generations of geoscientists. Here, we report on Geo-Soft-CoRe, a Geoscientific Software & Code Repository, hosted at the archive DIGITAL.CSIC. This is an open source, multidisciplinary and multiscale collection of software and code developed to analyze different aspects of the Earth system, encompassing tools to: 1) analyze climate variability; 2) assess hazards, and 3) characterize the structure and dynamics of the solid Earth. Due to the broad range of applications of these software packages, this collection is useful not only for basic research in Earth science, but also for applied research and educational purposes, reducing the gap between the geosciences and the society. By providing each software and code with a permanent identifier (DOI), we ensure its self-sustainability and accomplish the FAIR (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable) principles. Therefore, we aim for a more transparent science, transferring knowledge in an easier way to the geoscience community, and encouraging an integrated use of computational infrastructure.

Systematic Review Registration: https://digital.csic.es/handle/10261/193580, This research has been funded by the Projects EPOS IP 676564, EPOS SP 871121, SERA 730900, GeoCAM (PGC2018-095154-B-I00, Spanish Government) and the Center of Excellence for Exascale in Solid Earth (ChEESE) under the Grant Agreement 823844. IDF was funded by a FEDER-Junta de Castilla y León Postdoctoral contract (SA0084P20). JA and M-GL are funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation through the Juan de la Cierva fellowship (IJC 2018-036074-I and IJC 2018-036826-I, respectively), funded by MCIN/AEI /10.13039/501100011033. AH is grateful for his Ramón y Cajal contract (RYC 2020-029253-I). Additional funding was provided by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (RTI 2018-095594-B-I00, PGC 2018-095154-B-100) and the Generalitat de Catalunya (AGAUR, 2017SGR1022). AP’s work was supported by: a Science Foundation Ireland Career Development Award (17/CDA/4695); an investigator award (16/IA/4520); a Marine Research Programme funded by the Irish Government, co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund (Grant-Aid Agreement No. PBA/CC/18/01); European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme InnoVar under grant agreement No 818144; SFI Centre for Research Training in Foundations of Data Science 18/CRT/6049, and SFI Research Centre awards I-Form 16/RC/3872 and Insight 12/RC/2289_P2. AH and SG thank the Spanish research project PaleoModes (CGL2016-75281-C2-1-R) which provided some of their financial support. JF is supported by an Atracción de Talento senior fellowship (2018-T1/AMB/11493) funded by Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain), and a project funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (PID2020-114854GB-C22)., Peer reviewed