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Seed dispersal in Andalusian olive groves by frugivorous birds

  • Rey, Pedro J.
  • Camacho, Francisco M.
  • Tarifa, Rubén
  • Pérez, Antonio J.
  • Martínez-Núñez, Carlos
All methodological information and farms and landscape characteristic information can be found in Rey et al (2021).
Characterization of the avian seed dispersers and the seeds they mobilizes by mist-netting: From September 2019 to March 2020, we conducted bird mist-netting sessions in the 20 study olive farms monthly. Birds trapping was carried out for 3 h in each session (between mid-morning and noon). For each farm, two simultaneous capture zones, one in the olive field and the other in SNWH patches were considered, with a distance of 150 meters between zones. In each zone (habitat), we set two mist-nets of 12 × 2.5 meters and a mesh size of 16mm (24 linear meters of the net in total per zone). In each mist-net zone, a sound call that emitted songs of the frugivorous species present was arranged at random to attract birds. A 1-m wide strip of mosquito net was placed on the ground beneath the mist nets to collect the seeds excreted by the birds while they were trapped in the net. Once a bird was released from the net it was immediately introduced in a cloth bag with a paper cone located inside until the moment of seed collection/identification. All birds were kept in the cloth bags for 1 h, then ringed and released. For each individual captured, the total number of seeds of each species collected under the net and in the collector was recorded.
Mobilised seeds to seed fall traps:
- Seed_trap_2018: To determine the probability of seed deposition into different habitats within the olive farm and to characterize seed rain, we used plastic plant pots of 40 cm diameter and 20 cm depth as seed fall traps.
Traps were covered with a 1 × 1 cm wire mesh to avoid seed predation by micro mammals and perforated on their base to drain rainwater. 18 seed fall traps were placed per farm in three different types of habitats (6 traps per habitat): beneath the olive tree canopy, beneath the canopy of isolated overtopping non-olive trees serving as perches to birds within the olive field, and within seminatural woodland habitat remnants. Traps were always set hanging from branches of trees and/or tall scrubs. Traps were active for 17 months, between October 2018 and March 2020 in 9 localities. We collected the trapped seeds periodically (every 3 months, with monthly-bimonthly checks to make sure that the traps were active).
- Seed_trap_2021: in this case, we used plastic plants trays of 57 x 42 cm and 10 cm depth as seed fall traps. Traps were covered with a 1 × 1 cm wire mesh to avoid seed predation by micro mammals and perforated on their base to drain rainwater. 30 seed fall traps were placed per farm in seminatural woodland habitat remnants below fleshy- fruited shrub, other shrubs and perches. The traps were active for 6 months, between June 2021 and March 2022 in 12 localities. We collected the trapped seeds monthly., Our aim was to characterize the seeds of fleshy fruit species mobilized by avian frugivores in the olive grove farms of the Guadalquivir valley in Andalusia (South Spain), considering a landscape homogenization gradient. We further assessed the contribution of different frugivores to this function by mist-netting and scat collection. We differentiated two habitats within olive farms: olive grove matrix and seminatural woodland patches., This work was funded by RECOVECOS project -Evaluating the Recovery debt of ecosystem services provided by the fauna in permanent croplands: effects of land use intensification and landscape complexity in olive groves- (Ref.: PID2019-108332GB-100, MICIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033), LIFE Program project OLIVARES VIVOS (ref. LIFE14 NAT/ES/001094) and FEDER SUMHAL project Work Package 9. Task 9.3.2. Model impact of land use change -Sustainability for Mediterraean Hotspots in Andalusia- integrating LifeWatch ERIC (LifeWatch ERIC – FEDER, POPE 2014-2020; Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Spain), CSIC is acknowledged for supporting Open Access publication., 'summary_seed_dispersers.csv' file has information of the species of frugivorous birds that have been detected dispersing seeds in the olive grove per each farm. 'summary_mobilised_seed.csv' file has information of fleshy fruit seed species that have been detected dispersed in the olive groves per each farms 'farm_information.csv' records information about each farm like location (coordinates), ground herb management, Seminatural woodland cover in the landscape and farm size 'metadata' records information about the meaning of columns in 'summary_seed_dispersers.csv','summary_mobilised_seed.csv' and 'farm_information.csv' files, Peer reviewed



Floral visitor species present in flowers of the ground herb in the Andalusia olive groves

  • Cano, Domingo
  • Pérez, Antonio J.
  • Martínez-Núñez, Carlos
  • Rey, Pedro J.
We sampled the abundance and diversity of flower-visiting insects in paired olive farms located in Andalusia. The surveys were carried out in 18 paired olive farms in 2018, and in 24 paired olive farms in 2020. On the one hand, each pair of olive farms is constituted by an olive farm with low-intensive herb cover management and an olive farm with intensive herb cover management. The low-intensive management consists of the maintenance of herb cover during most of the year being only removed in late spring by mechanic mowing or livestock grazing. Conversely, intensive management consists of removing the herb cover permanently by using pre-emergence and/ or post-emergence herbicides, sometimes in combination with ploughing the ground several times a year. On the other hand, the pair of farms in each locality is surrounded by the same landscape complexity. We classified each pair of farms into three categories of landscape complexity (simple, intermediate, and complex) according to the proportion of semi-natural area estimated within a 2 km radius buffer around the centroid of each pair of farms.
Surveys were conducted in multi-specific floral stands. We selected two 10 m2 multi-floral stands per olive farm located inside the olive field matrix. They were carried out twice for 2018, and monthly from March to June for 2020 (3 sampling rounds in total), matching the peak flowering period of the ground herb cover. Sampling consisted of recording the abundance and diversity of flower-visiting insects in each floral patch for 15 minutes in the morning (until 13 h) and for 15 minutes in the afternoon (until 17 h) every sampling round.
The diversity and abundance of insect floral visitor by transect was pooled by population/locality ('SUMMARY_Floral_visitors_pop.csv' file)., Our aim was to assess the effect of agricultural management and landscape context of the olive groves on the flower-visiting insect community., This work was funded by RECOVECOS project -Evaluating the Recovery debt of ecosystem services provided by the fauna in permanent croplands: effects of land use intensification and landscape complexity in olive groves- (Ref.: PID2019-108332GB-100, MICIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033), LIFE Program project OLIVARES VIVOS (ref. LIFE14 NAT/ES/001094) and FEDER SUMHAL project Work Package 9. Task 9.3.2. Model impact of land use change -Sustainability for Mediterraean Hotspots in Andalusia- integrating LifeWatch ERIC (LifeWatch ERIC – FEDER, POPE 2014-2020; Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Spain). CSIC is acknowledged for supporting Open Access publication., DB_Pollinator_Community_Info.csv [shows the list per population of wild bee species per olive farm] DB_Pollinator_Summary.csv [has information of species bee richness per olive farm according the data of ' BD_WildBees_LIFE_Community_Info.csv ' file] DB_Pollinator_Farm_Info.csv [has information about geographic location, landscape metrics and soil management of each olive farm] Metadata_Pollinator.csv [records information about the meaning of columns in 'BD_WildBees_LIFE_Community_Info.csv ' and ' BD_WildBees_LIFE_Summary.csv ' and 'Metada_WildBees_LIFE.csv' files., Peer reviewed



Diversity of pollen dispersed by solitary bees to artificial nests in olive groves

  • Cano, Domingo
  • Ossorio Martínez, David
  • León Ruiz, Josefa
  • Pérez, Antonio J.
  • Jiménez, Joaquín
  • Ruiz Valenzuela, Luis
  • Rey, Pedro J.
We sampled the diversity of pollen dispersed by solitary bees by using bee trap nests in 12 paired olive farms located in 6 localities from Andalusia in 2020. On the one hand, each paired olive farm is constituted by an olive farm with low-intensive herb cover management and an olive farm with intensive herb cover management. The low-intensive management consists of the maintenance of herb cover during most of the year being only removed in late spring by mechanic mowing or cattle. Conversely, intensive management consists of removing the herb cover permanently by using pre-emergence and/ or post-emergence herbicides sometimes in combination with ploughing the ground several times a year. On the other hand, each paired farm in each locality is surrounded by the same landscape complexity. We classified each paired farm in three categories of landscape complexity (simple, intermediate, and complex) according to the proportion of semi-natural area estimated within a 2 km radius buffer around the centroid of each pair of farms.
We use 144 bee trap nests in total, using two different materials and four cavity diameters (40× ca. 9 mm bamboo, 20× ca. 12 mm reed internodes, 20× ca. 15 mm reed internodes and 4× ca. 20 mm reed internodes), providing a total of 84 nesting cavities per nest. On each farm, six nests were set in March, matching the period of activity in the phenology of these solitary bees and the flowering plants they pollinate. Bee trap nests were set in different microhabitats (i.e. olive orchard matrix and non-productive areas). Trap nest colonization was monitored monthly, from April to September. For every cavity colonized, samples of three different pollen packs were extracted and dyed using fuchsine. Samples were identified under microscope to species or pollen‐type level., Our aim was to assess the effect of agricultural management and landscape context of the olive orchard on the diversity of pollen dispersed by solitary bees to artificial nests., This work was funded by RECOVECOS project -Evaluating the Recovery debt of ecosystem services provided by the fauna in permanent croplands: effects of land use intensification and landscape complexity in olive groves- (Ref.: PID2019-108332GB-100, MICIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033), LIFE Program project OLIVARES VIVOS (ref. LIFE14 NAT/ES/001094) and FEDER SUMHAL project Work Package 9. Task 9.3.2. Model impact of land use change -Sustainability for Mediterraean Hotspots in Andalusia- integrating LifeWatch ERIC (LifeWatch ERIC – FEDER, POPE 2014-2020; Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Spain). CSIC is acknowledged for supporting Open Access publication., DB_Pollen_Info.csv [shows the list of pollen species and morphotypes per olive farm] BD_Pollen _Summary.csv [has information of pollen species and morphotypes per olive farm according the data of ' BD_Pollen_LIFE _Info.csv ' file] DB_Pollen_Farm_Info.csv [has information about geographic location, landscape metrics and soil management of each olive farm] Metadata_Pollen.csv [records information about the meaning of columns in BD_Pollen_LIFE _Info.csv ' and ' BD_Pollen_LIFE_Summary.csv' and Metada_Pollen_LIFE.csv' files.], Peer reviewed