CONCILIANDO PATRONES Y PROCESOS EN LA EVOLUCION DEL COLOR FLORAL

PID2020-116222GB-I00

Nombre agencia financiadora Agencia Estatal de Investigación
Acrónimo agencia financiadora AEI
Programa Programa Estatal de Generación de Conocimiento y Fortalecimiento Científico y Tecnológico del Sistema de I+D+i
Subprograma Subprograma Estatal de Generación de Conocimiento
Convocatoria Proyectos I+D
Año convocatoria 2020
Unidad de gestión Plan Estatal de Investigación Científica y Técnica y de Innovación 2017-2020
Centro beneficiario UNIVERSIDAD DE SEVILLA
Identificador persistente http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100011033

Publicaciones

Found(s) 3 result(s)
Found(s) 1 page(s)

Flower reflectance spectra

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Rodríguez-Sambruno, Cristina
  • Narbona, Eduardo
  • del Valle, José Carlos
  • Valido, Alfredo
1. Description of methods used for collection/generation of data: The flower reflectance spectra were made with USB-2000 and Jaz A1465 Ocean Optics spectrophotometers (Duiven, The Netherlands) equipped with a top sensor system deuterium-halogen standardized light source, DT-MINI-GS-2 and DH-2000 lamps, respectively, and a coaxial fibber cable (QR-400-7-UV-VIS-BX; Ocean Optics). Reflectance corresponds to the proportion of a standard white reference tile (WS-1-SS; Ocean Optics). For all measurements, we kept the distance between the petals and the measuring probe constant and with an angle of illumination and reflection fixed at 45°. Spectra data were processed with OceanView software (version 2.0.8; Ocean Optics) and calculated in 5-nm wide spectral intervals in the range of 300–700 nm.
2. Methods for processing the data: We used the ‘getspec’ function of the ‘pavo’ R-package to load the colour spectral data between 300 and 700 nm of each flower. To reduce noise, the data was smoothed with a span of 0.25 and negative values were corrected by setting the minimum value to zero and scaling other values accordingly (‘procspec’ function).
3. Instrument- or software-specific information needed to interpret/reproduce the data, please indicate their location: USB-2000 and Jaz A1465 Ocean Optics spectrophotometers (Duiven, The Netherlands) equipped with a top sensor system deuterium-halogen standardized light source, DT-MINI-GS-2 and DH-2000 lamps, respectively, and a coaxial fibber cable (QR-400-7-UV-VIS-BX; Ocean Optics). Reflectance corresponds to the proportion of a standard white reference tile (WS-1-SS; Ocean Optics). Spectra data were processed with OceanView software (version 2.0.8; Ocean Optics).
4. Standards and calibration information, if appropriate: Reflectance corresponds to the proportion of a standard white reference tile (WS-1-SS; Ocean Optics)., 1. Many insular plant species inhabiting different archipelagos worldwide present typical ornithophilous floral traits (e.g., copious nectar, red-orange colours), but most of them are visited by insectivorous/granivorous birds and lizards, which act as generalist pollinators. Oceanic islands promote these ecological interactions mainly due to the scarcity of arthropods. Our goal is to understand how these generalist interactions contribute to the shift of floral traits from entomophily (mainland) to ornithophily or saurophily (island), where specialist nectar-feeding birds have not inhabited.
2. We used the well-known pollination interactions occurring in the Canary Islands to evaluate two proposed ecological hypotheses, bee-avoidance or bird-attraction, explaining evolutionary transitions of floral traits. Specifically, we studied the flower colour conspicuousness of bird-pollinated Canarian species visited by birds and lizards with their closest relatives from the mainland mainly visited by bees. We analysed the chromatic contrast of flower colours using visual models of bees, birds, and lizards and the achromatic contrast in visual models of bees. We also compared reflectance spectra marker points of flowers with available spectral discrimination sensitivities of bees and birds.
3. Using a phylogenetically corrected framework of independent plant lineages, our results revealed that bird-pollinated Canarian species showed lower chromatic contrast according to bees and lizard visual models than their mainland relatives, but similar chromatic contrast for bird vision. In addition, reflectance spectra marker points of the Canarian species were displaced to the longest wavelengths, far from the wavelengths of maximum discrimination of bees, but close to birds.
4. We conclude that the avoidance of bees would be a primary ecological strategy explaining the evolutionary transitions of flower colours from melittophily to ornithophily. The lower conspicuousness of bird-pollinated Canarian flowers in lizards is perhaps a side effect of the bee-avoidance strategy rather than an independent evolutionary strategy. Together, these findings provide insights into how vertebrate generalist pollinators can also lead to divergence of floral traits in insular habitats, but also in other arthropod-poor habitats., Fundación CajaCanarias/La Caixa (2022CLISA29), Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (PID2020-116222GB-100)., Flower reflectance data, Peer reviewed




Bird-flower colour on islands supports the bee-avoidance hypothesis

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Rodríguez-Sambruno, Cristina
  • Narbona, Eduardo
  • del Valle, José Carlos
  • Valido, Alfredo
Many insular plant species inhabiting different archipelagos worldwide present typical ornithophilous floral traits (e.g. copious nectar, red-orange colours), but most of them are visited by insectivorous/granivorous birds and lizards, which act as generalist pollinators. Oceanic islands promote these ecological interactions mainly due to the scarcity of arthropods. Our goal is to understand how these generalist interactions contribute to the shift of floral traits from entomophily (mainland) to ornithophily or saurophily (island), where specialist nectar-feeding birds have not inhabited.
We used the well-known pollination interactions occurring in the Canary Islands to evaluate two proposed ecological hypotheses, bee-avoidance or bird-attraction, explaining evolutionary transitions of floral traits. Specifically, we studied the flower colour conspicuousness of bird-pollinated Canarian species visited by birds and lizards with their closest relatives from the mainland mainly visited by bees. We analysed the chromatic contrast of flower colours using visual models of bees, birds and lizards and the achromatic contrast in visual models of bees. We also compared reflectance spectra marker points of flowers with available spectral discrimination sensitivities of bees and birds.
Using a phylogenetically corrected framework of independent plant lineages, our results revealed that bird-pollinated Canarian species showed lower chromatic contrast according to bees and lizard visual models than their mainland relatives, but similar chromatic contrast for bird vision. In addition, reflectance spectra marker points of the Canarian species were displaced to the longest wavelengths, far from the wavelengths of maximum discrimination of bees, but close to birds.
We conclude that the avoidance of bees would be a primary ecological strategy explaining the evolutionary transitions of flower colours from melittophily to ornithophily. The lower conspicuousness of bird-pollinated Canarian flowers in lizards is perhaps a side effect of the bee-avoidance strategy rather than an independent evolutionary strategy. Together, these findings provide insights into how vertebrate generalist pollinators can also lead to divergence of floral traits in insular habitats, but also in other arthropod-poor habitats., We thank Juan Arroyo, Manuel Arechavaleta, Salvador Cruz, Félix Medina, Paulino Melchor and Beneharo Rodríguez for the localization of some plant populations, and Jens M Olesen and Jeff Ollerton for constructive comments on the manuscript. Besides national parks of Garajonay (La Gomera) and Taburiente (La Palma) provided facilities to access to some plant populations. A.V. is supported by Fundación Cajacanarias/La Caixa (2022CLISA29), and the program ‘Investigo’ (PRTR-NextGenerationEU). E.N. and J.C.d.V. are funded by Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (PID2020-116222GB-100). We acknowledge support of the publication fee by the CSIC Open Access Publication Support Initiative through its Unit of Information Resources for Research (URICI)., Peer reviewed




The role of phenotypic plasticity in shaping ecological networks

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Gómez, José María
  • González-Megías, Adela
  • Armas, Cristina
  • Narbona, Eduardo
  • Navarro, Luis
  • Perfectti, Francisco
Special Issue: Exploring the Border Between Ecology and Evolution., Plasticity-mediated changes in interaction dynamics and structure may scale up and affect the ecological network in which the plastic species are embedded. Despite their potential relevance for understanding the effects of plasticity on ecological communities, these effects have seldom been analysed. We argue here that, by boosting the magnitude of intra-individual phenotypic variation, plasticity may have three possible direct effects on the interactions that the plastic species maintains with other species in the community: may expand the interaction niche, may cause a shift from one interaction niche to another or may even cause the colonization of a new niche. The combined action of these three factors can scale to the community level and eventually expresses itself as a modification in the topology and functionality of the entire ecological network. We propose that this causal pathway can be more widespread than previously thought and may explain how interaction niches evolve quickly in response to rapid changes in environmental conditions. The implication of this idea is not solely eco-evolutionary but may also help to understand how ecological interactions rewire and evolve in response to global change., This research is supported by grants from the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (PID2021-126456NB, PID2020-116222GB-100), Junta de Andalucía (P18-FR-3641), LIFE18 GIE/IT/000755, including EU FEDER funds. This is a contribution to the Unidad Asociada UGR-CSIC ‘Evoflor’ and to the Research Unit Modelling Nature, funded by the Consejería de Universidad, Investigación e Innovación and European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), reference QUALIFICA-00011., Peer reviewed