ESCENARIOS FUTUROS DE CAMBIO CLIMATICO Y ZOOPLANCTON MARINO: EFECTOS SINERGICOS DE TEMPERATURA Y DEFICIENCIAS DE NUTRIENTES EN POBLACIONES ADAPTADAS

PID2020-118645RB-I00

Nombre agencia financiadora Agencia Estatal de Investigación
Acrónimo agencia financiadora AEI
Programa Programa Estatal de I+D+i Orientada a los Retos de la Sociedad
Subprograma Programa Estatal de I+D+i Orientada a los Retos de la Sociedad
Convocatoria Proyectos I+D
Año convocatoria 2020
Unidad de gestión Plan Estatal de Investigación Científica y Técnica y de Innovación 2017-2020
Centro beneficiario AGENCIA ESTATAL CONSEJO SUPERIOR DE INVESTIGACIONES CIENTIFICAS (CSIC)
Identificador persistente http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100011033

Publicaciones

Found(s) 13 result(s)
Found(s) 2 page(s)

Thermal acclimation and adaptation in marine protozooplankton and mixoplankton [Dataset]

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Calbet, Albert
  • Saiz, Enric
It is a contribution of the Marine Zooplankton Ecology Group (2017 SGR 87), Proper thermal adaptation is key to understanding how species respond to temperature. However, this is seldom considered in protozooplankton and mixoplankton experiments. In this work, we studied how two heterotrophic dinoflagellates (Gyrodinium dominans and Oxyrrhis marina), one heterotrophic ciliate (Strombidium arenicola), and one mixotrophic dinoflagellate (Karlodinium armiger) responded to warming, comparing strains adapted at 16, 19 and 22 °C and those adapted at 16 °C and exposed for 3 days at 19 and 22 °C (acclimated treatments). Neither CNP contents nor the corresponding elemental ratios showed straightforward changes with temperature, except for a modest increase in P contents with temperature in some grazers. In general, the performance of both acclimated and adapted grazers increased from 16 to 19 °C and then dropped at 22 °C, with a few exceptions. Therefore, our organisms followed the “hotter is better” hypothesis from 16 to 19 °C; above 19 °C, however, the results were variable. Despite the disparity in the responses between species and physiological rates, in general, it seems that 19 °C-adapted organisms performed better than acclimated-only organisms. However, at 22 °C, most species were at the limit of their metabolisms and were unable to fully adapt. Nevertheless, adaptation to higher temperatures conferred some advantages prior to sudden increases in temperature (up to 25 °C) that simulated a heatwave episode. In summary, adaptation to temperature seems to confer a selective advantage to protistan grazers within a narrow range (i.e., ca. 3 °C). Adaptation to much higher temperatures (i.e., 6 °C) does not confer any clear physiological advantage (with few exceptions; e.g., the mixotroph K. armiger), at least within the time frame of our experiments, This research was funded by Grant CTM2017-84288-R by Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER)/ Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades—Agencia Estatal de Investigación (AEI), and by Grant PID2020-118645RB-I00 by Ministerio de Ciencia e innovación (MCIN)/AEI/ 10.13039/501100011033 and by “ERDF A way of making Europe”. With the institutional support of the ‘Severo Ochoa Centre of Excellence’ accreditation (CEX2019-000928-S), Para 4 especies: Volumen (µm3/depredador), Tasa crecimiento (µ 1/d), Tasa de ingestion (cells/ind/d), Eficiencia bruta de crecimiento (GGE, %), Peer reviewed




Effects of temperature on the bioenergetics of the marine protozoans Gyrodinium dominans and Oxyrrhis marina [Dataset]

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Calbet, Albert
  • Martínez, Rodrigo Andrés
  • Saiz, Enric
  • Alcaraz, Miquel
We aimed at studying the mechanisms underneath the ascending and descending sections of the thermal performance curves in marine protozoans. To do so, we exposed Gyrodinium dominans and two strains of Oxyrrhis marina from different origins to three temperatures representative of each section of the thermal response curve (12ºC, ascending section; 18ºC, top; 25ºC, descending section). As variables, we measured growth, ingestion, and respiration rates (this latter with and without food). The growth rates of O. marina strains plotted as a function of temperature showed a triangular response with maximum values at the intermediate temperature. However, G. dominans showed similar growth rates at 12 and 18ºC, and even if showed a marked decrease in growth rates at 25ºC, this was not significant. Ingestion rates were higher at 18ºC for all the strains. The respiration rates of G. dominans were unaffected by temperature, but the respiration rates of both O. marina strains increased with temperature. The specific dynamic action produced by feeding activity ranged from 2 to 20% of the daily carbon ingestion for all organisms investigated. The calculated energetic budget indicated that the responses to temperature were diverse, even within strains of the same species. G. dominans maintained similar growth at all temperatures by balancing anabolism and catabolism functions. In O. marina strains, on the other hand, the decrease in growth rates at the lowest temperature was driven mainly by reduced ingestion rates. However, increased respiration seemed the primary factor affecting the decrease in growth rates at the highest temperature. These results are discussed in the light of previous studies and on its suitability to understand the response of wild organisms to fluctuations in temperature, This research was funded by Grant PID2020-118645RB-I00 by Ministerio de Ciencia e innovación (MCIN)/AEI/ 10.13039/501100011033 and by “ERDF A way of making Europe”. R.A.M. was funded by a PhD fellowship from the National Commission of Science (CONICYT), Ministry of Education, Chile. It is a contribution of the Marine Zooplankton Ecology Group (2017 SGR 87). With the institutional support of the ‘Severo Ochoa Centre of Excellence’ accreditation (CEX2019-000928-S), Para 3 especies de protozoos marino: Tasa de respiración con y sin comida (µmol O2/ind/h), Tasa crecimiento (µ 1/d), Tasa de ingestion (cells/ind/d), Eficiencia bruta de crecimiento (GGE, %), Peer reviewed




Thermal Acclimation and Adaptation in Marine Protozooplankton and Mixoplankton

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Calbet, Albert
  • Saiz, Enric
13 pages, 6 figures, 3 tables.-- Data Availability Statement: The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article can be found at the open repository (Digital.CSIC, http://hdl.handle.net/10261/262244, https://doi.org/10.20350/digitalCSIC/14517).-- It is a contribution of the Marine Zooplankton Ecology Group (2017 SGR 87), Proper thermal adaptation is key to understanding how species respond to long-term changes in temperature. However, this is seldom considered in protozooplankton and mixoplankton experiments. In this work, we studied how two heterotrophic dinoflagellates (Gyrodinium dominans and Oxyrrhis marina), one heterotrophic ciliate (Strombidium arenicola), and one mixotrophic dinoflagellate (Karlodinium armiger) responded to warming. To do so, we compared strains adapted at 16, 19, and 22°C and those adapted at 16°C and exposed for 3 days to temperature increases of 3 and 6°C (acclimated treatments). Neither their carbon, nitrogen or phosphorus (CNP) contents nor their corresponding elemental ratios showed straightforward changes with temperature, except for a modest increase in P contents with temperature in some grazers. In general, the performance of both acclimated and adapted grazers increased from 16 to 19°C and then dropped at 22°C, with a few exceptions. Therefore, our organisms followed the “hotter is better” hypothesis for a temperature rise of 3°C; an increase of >6°C, however, resulted in variable outcomes. Despite the disparity in responses among species and physiological rates, 19°C-adapted organisms, in general, performed better than acclimated-only (16°C-adapted organisms incubated at +3°C). However, at 22°C, most species were at the limit of their metabolic equilibrium and were unable to fully adapt. Nevertheless, adaptation to higher temperatures allowed strains to maintain physiological activities when exposed to sudden increases in temperature (up to 25°C). In summary, adaptation to temperature seems to confer a selective advantage to protistan grazers within a narrow range (i.e., ca. 3°C). Adaptation to much higher increases of temperatures (i.e., +6°C) does not confer any clear physiological advantage (with few exceptions; e.g., the mixotroph K. armiger), at least within the time frame of our experiments, This research was funded by Grant CTM2017-84288-R by Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER)/Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades-Agencia Estatal de Investigacioìn (AEI), and by Grant PID2020-118645RB-I00 by Ministerio de Ciencia e innovación (MCIN)/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 and by ERDF A way of making Europe. [...] With the institutional support of the Severo Ochoa Centre of Excellence accreditation (CEX2019-000928-S). The open-access publication fee was partially covered by the CSIC Open Access Publication Support Initiative through its Unit of Information Resources for Research (URICI)




Effects of Temperature on the Bioenergetics of the Marine Protozoans Gyrodinium dominans and Oxyrrhis marina

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Calbet, Albert
  • Martínez, Rodrigo Andrés
  • Saiz, Enric
  • Alcaraz, Miquel
9 pages, 3 figures, 2 tables.-- Data Availability Statement: Publicly available datasets were analyzed in this study. This data can be found here: https://doi.org/10.20350/digitalCSIC/14561..-- It is a contribution of the Marine Zooplankton Ecology Group (2017 SGR 87)., We exposed Gyrodinium dominans and two strains of Oxyrrhis marina to temperatures well above (25°C) and below (12°C) their maintenance temperature (18°C) to study the mechanisms controlling the overall physiological response to thermal stress. As variables, we measured growth, ingestion, and respiration rates (this latter with and without food). The growth rates of O. marina strains plotted as a function of temperature showed maximum values at the maintenance temperature, as expected in a typical unimodal functional response. However, G. dominans showed similar growth rates at 12 and 18°C, and even a marked decrease in growth rates at 25°C, happened to be not significant. G. dominans ingestion rates were not significantly different at all temperatures (although apparently decreased at 25°C), whereas both O. marina strains showed higher ingestion rates at 18°C. The respiration rates of G. dominans were unaffected by temperature, but those of O. marina strains increased with temperature. The specific dynamic action (respiration increase produced by feeding activity) ranged from 2 to 20% of the daily carbon ingestion for all organisms investigated. The calculated energetic budget indicated that the responses to temperature were diverse, even between in strains of the same species. G. dominans maintained similar growth at all temperatures by balancing metabolic gains and losses. In O. marina strains, on the other hand, the decrease in growth rates at the lowest temperature was driven mainly by reduced ingestion rates. However, increased respiration seemed the primary factor affecting the decrease in growth rates at the highest temperature. These results are discussed in the light of previous studies and on its suitability to understand the response of wild organisms to fluctuations in temperature, This research was funded by Grant PID2020-118645RB-I00 by Ministerio de Ciencia e innovación (MCIN)/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 and by “ERDF A way of making Europe”. The open access publication fee was partially covered by the CSIC Open Access Publication Support Initiative through its Unit of Information Resources for Research (URICI). [...] With the institutional support of the ’Severo Ochoa Centre of Excellence’ accreditation (CEX2019-000928-S), Peer reviewed




The effect of short-term temperature exposure on vital physiological processes of mixoplankton and protozooplankton

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Duarte Ferreira, Guilherme
  • Grigoropoulou, Afroditi
  • Saiz, Enric
  • Calbet, Albert
10 pages, 6 figures, 3 tables, supplementary data https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2022.105693, Sudden environmental changes like marine heatwaves will become more intense and frequent in the future. Understanding the physiological responses of mixoplankton and protozooplankton, key members of marine food webs, to temperature is crucial. Here, we studied two dinoflagellates (one protozoo- and one mixoplanktonic), two ciliates (one protozoo- and one mixoplanktonic), and two cryptophytes. We report the acute (24 h) responses on growth and grazing to a range of temperatures (5–34 °C). We also determined respiration and photosynthetic rates for the four grazers within 6 °C of warming. The thermal performance curves showed that, in general, ciliates have higher optimal temperatures than dinoflagellates and that protozooplankton is better adapted to warming than mixoplankton. Our results confirmed that warmer temperatures decrease the cellular volumes of all species. Q10 coefficients suggest that grazing is the rate that increases the most in response to temperature in protozooplankton. Yet, in mixoplankton, grazing decreased in warmer temperatures, whereas photosynthesis increased. Therefore, we suggest that the Metabolic Theory of Ecology should reassess mixoplankton's position for the correct parameterisation of future climate change models. Future studies should also address the multigenerational response to temperature changes, to confirm whether mixoplankton become more phototrophic than phagotrophic in a warming scenario after adaptation, This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 766327. [...] Thanks for financial support are also due to the ERASMUS + traineeship program and to the Grants CTM2017-84288-R and PID2020-118645RB-I00 funded by MCIN/AEI Spain/10.13039/501100011033 and by “FEDER Una manera de hacer Europa”. This work is a contribution of the Marine Zooplankton Ecology Group (2017 SGR 87) with the institutional support of the ‘Severo Ochoa Centre of Excellence’ accreditation (CEX 2019-000928-S), Peer reviewed




Does the temperature-size rule apply to marine protozoans after proper acclimation? [Dataset]

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Calbet, Albert
  • Saiz, Enric
The temperature-size rule hypothesized that there is a negative relationship between the size (volume) of an organism and the temperature. This applies to both unicellular and pluricellular organisms. Here, we question this hypothesis for the particular case of protozoans, because in these organisms the volume is directly related to the consumption of prey, and on most of the occasions the true volume of the cell is unknown. To prove our arguments, we designed a series of experiments with the heterotrophic dinoflagellate O. marina, including functional and numerical responses, time-dependent acclimation responses, and estimation of the protozoan volume during long periods of starvation. Our data showed that, in fact, the observed temperature-size rule in unicellular grazers results from anabolic and catabolic imbalances, and that the relationship between size and temperature weakens after proper thermal adaptation. We also showed that once prey are fully digested, the protozoan’ size is the same irrespectively of the temperature. Finally, we set the basis for proper acclimation during short-term temperature experiments, which specifies that at least 3 days should be allowed for proper temperature acclimation. We also suggest that, for trustable experiments, the grazer should be incubated at the target prey concentration for at least 24h before conducting the experiments. The ecological implications of a lack of correlation between microzooplankton size and temperature are also discussed, This research was funded by Grant PID2020-118645RB-I00 by Ministerio de Ciencia e innovación (MCIN)/AEI/ 10.13039/501100011033 and by “ERDF A way of making Europe”. It is a contribution of the Marine Zooplankton Ecology Group (2017 SGR 87). With the institutional support of the ‘Severo Ochoa Centre of Excellence’ accreditation (CEX2019-000928-S), Para Oxyrrhis marina: Tasas de ingestion a diferentes concentraciones de alimento (presa/ind/d), Tasa crecimiento (µ 1/d), Volumen (µm3); para la presa (Rhodomonas salina): volume (µm3), Peer reviewed




Multigenerational thermal response of the marine calanoid copepod Paracartia grani [Dataset]

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • De Juan Carbonell, Carlos
  • Griffell Martínez, Kaiene
  • Calbet, Albert
  • Saiz, Enric
We exposed the calanoid copepod Paracartia grani, reared in the laboratory at 19°C, to warmer conditions (22°C and 25°C) for 11 generations and examined the direct effects of temperature on feeding, fecundity, development, population sex ratio and somatic traits (adult and egg sizes and adult carbon content), This research was funded by Grants [CTM2017-84288-R and PID2020-118645RB-I00] by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 and by “ERDF A way of making Europe”. CJ was supported by Grant [PRE2018-084738] funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 and by “ESF Investing in your future”, With the institutional support of the ‘Severo Ochoa Centre of Excellence’ accreditation (CEX2019-000928-S), Rearing temperature, generation, prosome length, carbon content, ingestion rate, egg production rate, egg diameter, gross-growth efficiency, hatching success, Peer reviewed




The importance of the growth phase to understand the temperature-size rule in marine phytoplankton [Dataset]

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Calbet, Albert
  • García-Martínez, Minerva
  • Traboni, Claudia
  • Saiz, Enric
The temperature-size rule states that as the temperature increases, the body size of organisms decreases. This rule has been observed in a wide range of organisms, including marine phytoplankton and it is particularly important to model and predict the effects of global warming on the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems. This is so because the size of marine phytoplankton is a critical trait that determines their ecological and biogeochemical roles in marine ecosystems. The size of marine phytoplankton is also affected by resource availability, which relates to growth rates. Here, we compare the effects of a long-term exposure to several temperatures on the cell size of three marine microalgae during their growth curves. The species chosen were the cryptophyte Rhodomonas salina, the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa niei, and the diatom Conticribra (previously Thalassiosira) weissflogii. All algae conformed the temperature-size rule during all the phases of the growth curve. However, the size variations of the microalgae in each of the phases were species-specific. R. salina and H. niei showed higher volumes in the exponential growth phase than during the decline of growth and early stationary phases. Contrarily, the diatom showed smaller volumes during the exponential phase of growth than during the other phases. Overall, the effects of growth rate on cell size exceeded those of temperature for the expected ocean warming by the end of the century. These results also partially support the higher relevance of resource supply than temperature in explaining the variability of phytoplankton size structure in marine ecosystems, This research was funded by Grant PID2020-118645RB-I00 by Ministerio de Ciencia e innovación (MCIN)/AEI/ 10.13039/501100011033 and by “ERDF A way of making Europe”. With the institutional support of the ‘Severo Ochoa Centre of Excellence’ accreditation (CEX2019-000928-S), Para las tres microalgas, Rhodomonas salina, Heterocapsa niei, Conticribra weissflogii, abundancias, y volumen a diferentes temperaturas, Peer reviewed




Response of the marine calanoid copepod Paracartia grani to dietary elemental imbalances [Dataset]

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Saiz, Enric
  • Griffell Martínez, Kaiene
  • Isari, Stamatina
  • Calbet, Albert
We have studied the response of the marine calanoid copepod Paracartia grani to dietary elemental imbalances, This research was supported by Grant [PID2020-118645RB-I00] funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033, Elemental content, C:N ratios, C:P ratios, N:P ratios, copepod ingestion rate, copepod egg production rate, hatching success, gross-growth efficiency of egg production, egg size, nauplius body size, threshold elemental ratios for C:N and C:P, Peer reviewed




Ecophysiological response of marine copepods to dietary elemental imbalances

Digital.CSIC. Repositorio Institucional del CSIC
  • Saiz, Enric
  • Griffell Martínez, Kaiene
  • Isari, Stamatina
  • Calbet, Albert
This article is a contribution from the Marine Zooplankton Ecology Lab at the ICM-CSIC.-- 10 pages, 5 figures, supplementary data .-- Data availability: The data will be deposited in the DIGITAL.CSIC repository after
publication https://doi.org/10.20350/digitalCSIC/15171. DIGITAL.CSIC http://hdl.handle.net/10261/303804, We assessed the effects of nutrient imbalanced diets on the feeding, reproduction and gross-growth efficiency of egg production of the copepod Paracartia grani. The cryptophyte Rhodomonas salina, cultivated under balanced (f/2) and imbalanced growth conditions (N and P limitation), served as prey. Copepod C:N and C:P ratios increased in the imbalanced treatments, particularly under P limitation. Feeding and egg production rates did not differ between the balanced and N-limited treatments but decreased under P limitation. We found no evidence of compensatory feeding in P. grani. C gross-growth efficiency averaged 0.34 in the balanced treatment and declined to values of 0.23 and 0.14 for the N- and P-limited treatments, respectively. Under N limitation, N gross-growth efficiency increased significantly to a mean value of 0.69, likely as a result of increasing the nutrient absorption efficiency. P gross-growth efficiency reached values > 1 under P limitation, involving the depletion of body P. Hatching success was >80%, with no differences among diets. Hatched nauplii, however, had lower size and slower development when the progenitor was fed a P-limited diet. This study highlights the effects of P limitation in copepods, which are more constraining than N, and the presence of maternal effects driven by prey nutritional composition that ultimately may affect population fitness, This research was supported by Grant [PID2020-118645RB-I00] funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033. [...] The open-access publication fee was covered by the CSIC Open Access Publication Support Initiative through its Unit of Information Resources for Research (URICI). With the institutional support of the ‘Severo Ochoa Centre of Excellence’ accreditation (CEX2019-000928-S), Peer reviewed